Monday, 18 July 2016

Buying Walers - Australian horse traders.


"No greater or gamer breed of horse ever sniffed the wind."

                                     Tom Ronan, Strangers on the Ophir.


'The new mode of shipping horses to India'
- ramps were safer and faster than slings
wood engraving, 1880.
 State Library of Victoria.


Australian horse traders chiefly sold horses to India - where the Waler got its name, shortened from "New South Waler" - a horse from NSW. It soon meant a horse from Australia. Traders sold to other countries too. 

We sent horses as an export commodity early, for example in 1817 the Fame took 25 horses to Batavia, 1818 the Laurel took 23 horses to Batavia. In 1835 40 horses were sent on the Henry Tanner to Madras for the Hon. East India Co, by Capt. Collins, he also sent a load on the Duchess of Northumberland that year. The Lonarch took horses to Madras 1835, 20 sent by Richard Jones. In 1840 8 horses went to Calcutta on the Diana, 26 to NZ on the Westminster, etc etc. By the mid 1840's the trade kicked off properly and rapidly grew. 

Some traders specialised in supplying one country, most sold wherever a horse was wanted. They also had a jolly good time - Christmases in India with all the trimmings including the Viceroy's ball, the races in Calcutta, polo in Bombay, the Imperial Delhi Horse Show - where famous horse traders Dick McKenna, Dick Gilder and Steve Margrett were all asked to judge - polo, pig sticking - all the pleasures of being in a foreign land among others of similar tastes, with plenty of money in their pockets and respect from their peers.


Walers - indispensable for gathering Christmas decorations in southern India... 

The Graphic 1884.

Most horse traders started out with nothing. Some were racehorse trainers, some not even that. The odd one like Henry Madden was born into wealth but became far wealthier by selling horses to India. It was a time a horseman with guts, honesty and foresight could make it big.  They needed to be licensed to sell overseas and aquired an enviable reputation - the mix of horses, the military, business savvy, wealth, the high seas, the outback, the sale yards and exotic locations was charismatic.

Others traded within Australia - remounts, wool and wheat wagon horses, vanners, delivery, pack horses, tram horses, coach horses, stock horses, carriage horses, hacks and hunters and race ponies - horse power once did everything for us. A good horse was both useful and a status symbol.

While the remount trade was a way to get rid of slow racehorses for some, remounts were especially bred to be hardier, more solid, more frugal, more intelligent, better leg action, not nervous, plenty of good bone, high head/neck carriage. As time went by of course, the Thoroughbred itself changed. It went from a tough horse of mixed breeds to a soft inbred animal unsuited to anything but running inside a fenced circle on flat ground, that broke down often, thin of bone, with low knee action hence unsafe over normal going. Once we only bred stayers - now we only breed sprinters. The Waler was a breed created from the Thoroughbred in it's early days when it was of various breeds itself. Walers had tremendous bone, great leg action and wisdom from living on big runs; bred from TB's and whatever else breeders thought appropriate to create a military, work and sport horse - a touch of draught (draught sires over racebred mares was common, then bred back to a lighter horse to get a one quarter draught for artillery), harness breeds and pony. Stamina galore. Artillery types were deliberately bred as were ponies that suited our own racing needs, the griffin market and polo when it was played on ponies - ponies sold almost well as remounts, surprisingly. The key to success was the climate and big country. Being bred from stayers and raised on tough country meant survival traits became normal - good bone, hard hooves, endurance, ability to thrive on low quality feed, bonding to each other etc. The best sellers by far were remounts - troopers horses. They needed to be strong, hardy and loyal. Chargers for officers, also handy for polo when the height went up, had a lesser market.


The Grand Hotel in Calcutta (now the Oberoi) had a "Waler Corner" where Australian horse traders met; often after the horses were sold at the Army Remount Depot at Alipore. Some traders such as Jim Robb stayed here.

Once types thus created bred true, a breed was born. Walers were definate types by the 1850's in many areas, and breeding true. The term Waler was used in the 1840's and championed by Captain Apperley, father of the horse trade. Many breeds such as the TB did not even have a type when their studbook was closed. There was a one horse 'breed', Justin Morgan. Those without a studbook like roadsters became extinct, their blood going into other breeds such as TB's and hackneys. Studbooks were a new phenonema in the nineteenth century, not all breeds got one, most breeds were in the process of being shaped. We had many that bred true to types although in some areas the methods of creating Walers (crossbreeding) went on throughout the trade, it was a breed in the making - using the best of the best when horses were at their best. At the end of the trade Walers were left to breed true. No studbook meant they were in critical danger of extinction until one was formed, after gathering what could be found of Walers left on original breeding stations, with no new blood, in the 1980's. 




Ashton Brothers, polo players and pony traders. The Ashtons took polo ponies to England, and traded them to India, where they obtained top price - 1,700 guineas for one. The Ashtons also traded polo ponies to North America the first load there delivered in 1932. 

~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 



Numbers... In the years 1848 - 1856,  NSW government statistics stated 11,173 horses had been shipped overseas from that state. From 1857 stats were more accurately kept with those sent to India numbered separately - as it was our major single market - interestingly, the 1857 statistics show NSW shipped 523 horses to India and 5,600 horses to 'Other Countries' that year. India paid far better prices in those days, triple anywhere else - prices as grand totals were published in statistics. 

In 1864 3,867 horses were sent from South Australia, mostly to India but Java and Singapore were significant markets too. Artillery horses from Australia were fetching an extraordinary 70 pounds each in Bombay that year, and demand far outstripped supply. 

Stats are a good guide but at times far more horses existed than stated in govt figures; certainly far more were exported.



~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 


Polo..
.

Without Manipur the world would be a poorer place - here we learned polo - polo became a game that in many ways, did more than ambassadors to promote goodwill in the days a man was judged by his horse and sport replaced war. Manipuri ponies are legendary.

In the usual 'coals to Newcastle' scenario, it was often blood from India that bred great ponies. For example four Arab ponies bought in India became celebrated sires in Australia, their progeny sent back to India as polo ponies (discussed in Stephen Ralli bio below). Five more Arab pony stallions (two galloway size, three 13.2hh) arrived in 1899 on the Darius from Calcutta, three went to polo pony playing and breeding homes. With them was a mare, Maid Marion, that had won cross country races in India - bought by Ralli for breeding polo ponies. All were described as 'remarkably sweet tempered.' 

Another 4 stallions had come over in 1874, galloway size, sold in Melbourne. Several other importations, from early colonisation. It's possible they were indeed true Arab ponies - the Bussorah trade to India was constant. The town of Bussorah is now called Basrah, on the Euphrates River, a big horse trading port. Turkish horses came down the Euphrates too. Both Turkey and Arabia (Bussorah was in Mesopotamia, now Iraq) had a ban on selling horses to the British, but bribes meant the trade continued quite openly, although numbers were restricted. The horses from Bussorah were invariably praised to the skies, and got top prices. Many were used here to breed polo ponies too.

Books have rightfully been written on India and polo. In 1933 a full team from Jaipur went to England to play, in their string of 39 ponies, 16 were Australian. They won brilliantly. The Maharaja of Jaipur was an excellent customer.

'... I have seen many studs of polo ponies, including those of the American International sides and the Argentine Polo Federation side, but I have never seen any to compare with that of the Jodhpur side. The ponies are all perfectly trained ; they have pluck and handiness and speed, and most of them are the nearest approach to the perfect pony that any man could find. The majority of them are high-class Waler ponies, selected with great care on their arrival in India from Australia, and trained in the Maharajah's stables. A certain number are Indian country breds ; there are a few English thoroughbreds, and one or two Argentines....' 
Lord Wodehouse, The Spectator, 1925.

It's believed the highest priced polo pony sold in India in those days was an Australian pony sold by Ashton Brothers of West Maitland to the Maharaja of Kashmir for 1,700 guineas - it was named Maitland. Another famous polo pony was Lady Jane, sold by Jim Robb to Prince Hanu Singh of Jodhpur for a thousand pounds - the Prince later refused double the price for her. Robb said she was a better pony than the top priced one. (News, Adelaide, 7th April 1947). Polo rules changed over the years to raise the height, it was an open height by 1919 so eventually Thoroughbreds were used rather than true ponies. There were notable exceptions.


In 1934 Major T.C. Duigud of the 20th Burma Rifles visited Australia to buy polo ponies. He played for the regimental team. At their hill station Meymyo they preferred to play on ponies 13.2 hands and under. This was traditional and kept the game affordable for all. He said most Australian polo ponies sent over were too big - 14 to 15 hands. He'd come to choose his own smaller ponies. He said they were not trained for polo, being considered too small in Australia, all he could do was select the right types with good mouths and train them himself. He'd bought several the year before, in North Maitland, NSW. He went home via Fremantle where he and the ponies had a little break, and again in Singapore.

In 1937 one of Western Australia's best polo ponies "Moonlight" was sold to a banker in Batavia, Java.

Australian horses also had success at the giant horse shows in India, Slorihi won the lightweight polo pony class at the 1929 Simla show for example. A.E. Glasscock and other Australian horses traders also judged at this show and others. Military horses, carriage horses - all sorts were shown. Tent pegging and other competitions held.




Polo ponies had a far more luxurious trip than remounts. Their voyage to India was usually broken at Singapore. Curtis Skene made sure his ponies (in fact horse sized - the term 'pony' stuck to polo mounts) had roomy boxes, and a sand roll in the coal hole, on board. 

Photo  from The Land (Sydney), 25th May, 1934.

His first shipment was 40 in 1931, and in 1937 his last shipment was 85 ponies. It was tough work as he cared for them himself on the voyages. 

Born in Australia, Curtis moved to India as a tea plantation manager in Assam where he played polo in its very heartland for years; before moving back to Australia. He called his first team here the Assamanders. While in Assam he imported quite a few Australian polo ponies, sent over by his brother. A shipload in 1920, and another 50 in 1924.

His son Bob, born in India, become an internationally known polo player.  Daughter Phyllis was considered one of the world's best polo players too. Curtis  had an enviable reputation as a trainer of polo ponies, they commanded the best prices. R.M. Williams among others bought polo ponies from Curtis Skene. Curtis was still playing polo in his 70's. 


We sold polo ponies to the Philippines, the Elizaldes brothers, Joachin (Miguel), Manolo (Mike), Juan and Angel were great customers. The Manila Polo Club started in 1909. William Cameron Forbes, a banker and diplomat, funded the creation of an excellent field and facilities. It boomed. The Los Tamaros Polo Club started in 1937, with 35 Australian horses imported by Joachin Elizalde, one of the famous polo brothers who founded the club, ace players. 

Joachin, known better by his middle name Miguel, had been over in 1936, buying at West Maitland and playing here - dismayed at the state of our polo grounds but too polite to say other than he'd had a wonderful time and one may find the better the ground, the better the polo!  His wife, an excellent horse woman, accompanied him. The Elizaldes team thrashed the Australian team from the Hunter at the inauguration of their club. 




'In a work on "Modern Polo," by E. D. Miller, just published, we, says an exchange, get some remarks about the various breeds of ponies. Polo is a game that has a very strong hold in India, and Australia apparently leads the way in supplying India with the first-rate animals. The Maharajah of Cooch Bebar possesses the best Australian polo pony Mr. Miller has ever seen, his Highness buying bought the animal from Captain Orr Ewing for 3000 rupees. Mr. Miller says:-"Captain de Lisle, a great Indian polo player, and Captain of the Durham Light Infantry Polo Team, which is the best infantry team in India, is a great admirer of Australian ponies, and prefers them to all other for polo in the East.' He is an excellent authority on this subject. Probably he takes more trouble than anyone in India in the drilling of his team, and in the training of his own and of his brother officers' ponies. He owns a pair of beauties, and tells me they are quicker starters and faster than Arabs. These Australia ponies, with all the good points of English ponies, have legs and feet able to stand galloping on hard ground. The best racing pony now in India is Comewell, an Australian, who can beat out there all the English ponies, which are the pick of the finest English racing ponies, and fetch immense sums in India.' Morning Bulletin, Rockhampton, 16th May 1896.


Polo was played in Singapore and Malaya, and still is. We supplied thousands of horses there over the years. Their website has historical info and photos.

Sultan Ibrahim, the Sultan of Johor, Malaya, bought many polo ponies from Australia, and was a great player, inviting the Australian team over there to compete too. There were several notable Sultans from the various Malaysian states and prominent families who were excellent polo players. 

The Sultan of Perak, Sultan Iskander, and his brother, were ace players and great customers for Australian ponies too - they had the Iskander Polo Club, founded in 1923.  Also in 1923 Sultan Iskander gave some polo ponies to his new son in law Sultan Abu Bakar, to celebrate the wedding -  thus a new fan was born and Sultan Abu created the Royal Pahang Polo Club in 1926. 

When Sultan Iskander died, both clubs ceased and their fields became used for other sports. The Iskander Club later moved to Ipoh. Many of the Royal families of Malaya played polo.

Polo is now associated with the elite, once it was more broad spectrum, when anyone with the desire could buy a pony, a bit of gear, and get stuck into it. Ponies once well trained could be sold to fund more. Polocrosse in Australia took off as an alternative not requiring wealth, as one pony/horse was all that was need for a game, not a string.


600 horses being mustered on Oakland Downs station, Kidman owned.

The government did well out of it too. In 1892 parliament amended the tax on "Indian Horses" - meaning horses leaving the country, the presumption being they were all going to India -  raising it to three pounds a head. With a rebate of two pounds applying to most, it meant the government was sure of a pound a head for every horse shipped away. In today's money, millions annually. As ballast was need when shipping horses this too became cargo - usually coal was used, sometimes wool bales. More export duties for the government.


~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::


Names...

Another legacy was the influence of cultures. Australian horse traders to exotic lands brought back art, books, furnishings, music, clothing, culinary tastes, fine teas and words - especially the names of place they admired.


One suburb of Melbourne is named because of the India trade - Travancore. This was where Richard McKenna and his wife Emily owned their house Emilyville in Ascot Vale Road - he had paddocks and great stables, he trained racehorses. Not far from Flemington and Moonee Valley racecourses. McKenna got into India horse trading and started making a fortune - it became more important to him than his beloved racing. He'd sold racehorses to India, which is how his interest was sparked. He was respected in India as he sold them the best horses he could find. He was at Emilyville in 1884, and still there after 1910. 

Hugh Glass bought the original Flemington House and sold it to horse buyer Sir Henry Madden in 1906 who re-named it Travancore for the area in India he traded horses to. When the original mansion was pulled down in 1940 and the paddocks made into a suburb, it kept the name Travancore. Streets there also got Indian names - Bengal Street, Lucknow Street, Cashemere Street, Mangalore Street. The grounds were planted with tea, coffee, limes and orchards; there was a lake, summerhouse, stables, carriage houses, gym, library, ballroom larger than the Melbourne Town Hall, 24 fireplaces, servants quarters, gatehouse, boat house etc. Madden kept about 60 acres around the house. White swan from England graced the lake.













Above - Travencore, horse buyer Sir Henry Madden's house in Melbourne.
Below - part of the extensive grounds.

All around Australia houses, properties, streets, roads, suburbs and whole towns got named after places in India, Africa and Indonesia we traded horses to. Ships too were christianed with the names of the places they were built to trade to. Horses especially got names from India. Races too, such as the Travencore Steeplechase at Moonee Valley.



~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::
 

Etymology

Then.....................................................Now
Calcutta...........................................................Kolkata
Bombay.........................................................Mumbai
Madras..........................................................Chennai
Dutch East Indies......................................Indonesia
Abyssinia......................................................Ethiopia
Peking/Pekin..................................................Beijing
Rangoon.........................................................Yangon
Siam.............................................................Thailand
Burma.........................................................Myanmar
Malaya..........................................................Malaysia
Port Raffles/Port of Raffles.....................................Singapore
Ceylon, Kingdom of Kandy.................................................Sri Lanka
German South West Africa...................................................Namibia
Annam/Tonquin/Cochin China...........................................Vietnam
Aden...................................was a British colony, now part of Yemen
Portugese East Africa......................................................Mozambique
Sandwich Islands...............................................Hawaii
New Hebrides..................................................Vanuatu
Ile de France................................................Mauritius
Isle de Bourbon.................................................RĂ©union

Port de France..............................Noumea, New Caledonia
Copang/Coupang (Timor)...............................................Kupang


Terms

Bounder............................................an unbroken and wild horse
India trader...............................................................Horse buyer
India trade....................................................overseas horse trade
Griffin...............an unraced, unbroken pony of unknown breeding
Gunner, wheeler, leader.........................................artillery horses
Shipping agent.................shipping companies which generally owned ships and which got the permits to export livestock and arranged shipping etc, who did the paperwork for horse buyers without export permits. They rarely bought horses themselves. Essentially a broker co-ordinating cargoes and ship. All people who sent horses away had to go through an agent (shipping company) to book their horses onto a ship. Sometimes horse buyers were called shippers etc, these were the men with their own export permits; they still used a shipping company - terms can be confusing, but taken in context, undestandable. Horse buyers didn't own ships apart from some entrepreneurs like Boyd. Most traders chartered whole ships for their horses. 

Note - the term 'Griffin' is used in some places in modern times, but has changed to mean a Thoroughbred in its maiden race.

Costs... The horse buyer, not the shipping company, usually paid to build the stalls on a ship. For example in 1895 G. Baldock sent 250 horses from Melbourne on the Mombassa. He paid 700 pounds for the stalls to be built, and 7 pounds per head travel fee to Calcutta. The buyers also supplied the grooms and fodder. After all these costs, they still made a handsome return. It was all about choosing the right horses - quality sold at quality prices. In 1892 Steve Margrett paid 3,000 pounds for stalls to be built on the Boolinda, these were pulled down and sold as scrap in India. Before the trade kicked off, ship owners would pay for stalls and supply water in the hopes of attracting horse cargo. Once it was in full swing, they had less to worry about on the bottom line.

Shipping season... August to January for India. Government buying season from 1873 was 1st October to 31st March there, our main market - but traders took horses over earlier so they'd be rested and ready - starting in August. They finished sending in January, as late in the season prices dropped too much.

This gave horse buyers 6 months to source, buy, transport, handle horses, and book ships and buy fodder. 

It was an enormously busy and exciting time in India. Officers came in from the outlying areas to buy horses, private people too. 

Many ships were built for the horse trade - professional buyers loved these ships as they didn't have to pay for stalls being built - they were in place. Accommodation was good.

Some ships merely dismantled and stowed the stalls after a trip - after all horses only went one way, and they needed room to load other cargo for the return journey. Some sold the stalls as scrap to clear room for cargo on the return trip. Others simply stowed cargo in the stalls. The big horse ships also had good quarters for the many staff - buyers and grooms. They had excellent ventilation for the horses - with large opening doors down to the waterline; pressure hosing systems and waste outlets to clean stalls easily, walkways for horse exercise. 



Horses on Surbiton Station, Queensland circa 1940.
Good artillery types.
State library of Queensland.


Some buyers sold to others, for example J.S. O'Donnell at Maitland might buy local horses for Julius Gove. The order might be 20 polo ponies, 3 tried racehorses, and 120 remounts. Gove would trust in his fellow buyers choice - O'Donnell would buy the horses and ship them from Newcastle straight to Bombay, to be sold there by Gove, who lived in Melbourne but stayed in India for months over selling season.

Mobs were often walked 850 miles to the saleyards through some of the world's toughest country. Others walked even further - 1,000 miles to a railhead, to face a further long journey by train. On top of being raised on hard country and having to be self reliant, it's no wonder they gained an enviable reputation for hardiness, steadiness and intelligence.

The horse trade was immensely valuable to Australia for a good century, vital to building our country. Men like James Love of Queensland became so rich he bought many large properties and left a great legacy to his state of Queensland with a scholarship for Queenslanders and perpetual amount given to charities annually. 


Crackers! Steve Margrett, the dapper "Colonel" celebrated every Christmas in Calcutta - 50 years of them. Everyone knew when he arrived at Kidman's big horse sale each year - he loved to let off a big firecracker called a penny bunger to herald his arrival... and threw them into the gallery of onlookers throughout the sales, and into shops in Adelaide - Steve Margrett was in town! He was described as the heart and soul of that sale.

Incentive...  as well as the army in India paying good prices, the government put up enormous prizes for breeding horse classes (of good cavalry type) at shows throughout India. The shows were breath-takingly huge. In the 1870's for example, a good horse from locals, Australia, the Cape or Persia might fetch 600 rupees from government army buyers. However first prize for the breeding class at a show was usually 3,000 rupees - second and third places also paid over 1,000 rupees. These classes were open to all with stallions and mares, locals, importers, military people, private citizens. Mares were always given preference by government buyers as they could have a career on government stud farms after service, a good mare threw more consistently than a stallion.

The catch was that the government reserved the right to aquire winners - but at a price agree before the class - hence people simply named an outrageous figure if they wanted to keep the animal.

The Tolly (Tollygunge Club) a country club near Calcutta formed in 1895, put up a valuable prize for best imported remount. In 1907 Steve Margrett won it. In 1932 Jim Robb won first and second. The Tolly is still going strong. A solid white building set in extensive grounds with abundant trees, rolling grass and wildlife, it was a welcome respite from the streets.



The Tolly. source

In 1897 a grand Australian pony named Midnight, owned by the Powells, jumped an amazing 5 feet 1 inch at the Tollygunge Gymkhana - Midnight was 13 hands and half an inch tall, counting his shoes. As the ground was very chopped up the jump was probably higher. Reg Powell was riding him. In Australia he jumped 5 feet 11 inches carrying over 9 stone. Second to him at the Tolly was the pony Werocata (doubtlessly bred by Ralli) which was a hand and a half higher, but could not beat Midnight's jump. Midnight was by the pony stallion Jack Spratt out of a half bred mare. He hunted with the Melbourne Hounds for years where he learned to jump, as the jumps were huge and solid, many dangerous having barb wire etc.

News article and photos by 'Waler' about a picnic race meeting at the Tolly




Soldiers of the 1st Duke of York's Own Lancers (Skinners Horse - the famous Yellow Boys!) Hindustani Musalman and 3rd Skinner's Horse, Musalman Rajput. 

Illustration for 'Armies of India' by Major Alfred C. Lovett; book authored by Major G.F. MacMunn, published 1911. Must-have book for anyone studying this subject.

Lovett's art of military subjects in India is iconic. short bio of Lovett and painterly sketches


A lot of banter at the horse sales in Australia entertained the big crowds attending. The traders need a good horseman's eye and needed to know the market - a gunner was a wheeler or leader, a remount was sturdy, a polo pony or officers charger lighter than a troopers horse. When polo was played on ponies, you bought ponies the right size. Pig stickers were different to polo ponies. A carriage horse needed style. Conformation, colour, age - he needed to sum a horse up almost instantly - his reputation depended on it. Unsuitable horses were rejected on arrival overseas; a serious loss of investment. They had to get it right. 


~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 

Grooms...
Shipping horses to India from Australia usually took place between August and January. One groom for every 50 horses on a ship was considered manageable, but most shippers, once they were established, employed more - a man for every 25 horses, which was a better quota. Some had a man for every 5 horses - it all depended on who was in charge.  

Many grooms spent a lifetime at this job, enjoying their regular trips away and the good regard of all. It was hard work but a good living. They were invariably Australians, as no-one else would get in to muck out the horses. Sometimes other nationalities were employed to feed and water the horses. 

It was a busy job, first feed round was at 4 a.m. There were four feeding and water rounds, and mucking out, hosing, walking horses on ships which allowed this.

Up to the mid 1870's Australia had free emigration in unlimited numbers - unemployment became a growing problem. Seasonal work meant many men were out of work when shearing and cropping cut out. The horse season offered a chance at work, it started as other work cut out. Due to rumours saying there was plenty of work in India, many grooms signed on for a one way trip. The pay was low - ten to 20 pounds a trip - for arduous work starting at 4 am. Payment in advance meant some drank the money before leaving and arrived destitute. The result was there became an influx of unemployed Australian men in India during the 1850's to 1870's. Many felt betrayed by promises of well paid work on plantations, railways etc from some shippers, that proved fairytales. With great difficulty these men had to beg money get back home. Many were too proud to beg and became despised as loafers, although worked at anything for survival. Some never returned.

Articles in the papers, from unfortunates who'd ventured over as a one-way groom, meant people became more wary. Good professional shippers were coming into their own and paid better rates plus always included return travel. 

It became a vocation for many, with the off season being a time they could break and handle horses for the shippers, some mustered up country and drove horses to sales and depots for handling. Countless thousands of fine horsemen were employed in the horse trade. Grooms, also called stockmen, acquired a good reputation. A surprising amount of women became grooms on the horse ships.  

On board.. Ships carried anything from a dozen to 1,000 horses. The horses stood all the way, tied in narrow stalls. Many ships were especially built and fitted for the horse trade. Horses could be taken for a walk daily while their stall was cleaned, on the walkway or deck near their stalls. On some ships walking was not an option. Australians taking their horses over to war (WW1) were particular about walking their horses. Japanese fitted bigger stalls on steamers than others, They were very particular about horse care and successfully transported mares and foals often.

For horses to India six gallons of water (about 23 litres) per day per horse was carried, and 30 pounds (about 14 kilos) of fodder per day allowed. The fodder market was huge for the horse trade, and supported many farmers. 

Steam ships could condense fresh water from sea water (this was a part of the process to wash the motors at the start of the trip, steam people would know). Two condensers were always carried in case one broke, as well as spare supplies of fresh water in case. Engine failure would mean the condensors could not operate. Sailing ships of course had to carry loads of water.

Loading on board ship could be by sling, or later and more for valuable racehorses, a special box lifted by crane. A ramp with high sides was the usual loading method. Ramps were successful as a tame lead pony was used, the horses following it on board - often horses being shipped only had a headstall on for the first time in the yards at the dock. Their first leading "lesson' was onto the ship. Many lead ponies became old friends to the horse buyers, one little chap called Ginger at Port Melbourne was known to all. Another bigger Ginger led horses on in Port Adelaide.

Where ships couldn't dock due to shallow water or heavy seas, the horses were lifted over the side by sling and lowered into small waiting boats, such at Calcutta at times, at Madras, and at Ujina in Japan. Sling design became vastly improved. 

Breeders got famous too. Saleyards, ports, shipping lines, auctioneers. Railways and rail yards were built especially to transport horses - Queensland owes its vast network of rail to the horse trade. Massive ports put in.



Jack Alderson with a good Waler in Calcutta, India, 1929
Photo: State Library of Queensland.



Queensland horse dealers in Calcutta 1929.
Photos: State Library of Queensland.

Sales were held all over the country. Queensland became the major supplier at the end of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Most horses were sold unbroken and unhandled, and were sometimes called 'bounders' in India. Others had basic handling, and some were completely trained - reflected in the price. Many good horsemen liked their horses untouched, so they could make it themselves. It also made them affordable. Others were happy to pay for broken in horses. Some traders such as Stephen Ralli and Jim Robb sent entire shiploads of well trained horses away as ordered, both remounts and artillery - these were expensive animals. 

Most horses buyers like Steve Margrett would hop onto any horse in the remount saleyards in India to prove they were tractable, and once ridden bareback around the yard would say the price should go up now it was broken in! Game as Ned. McKenna, Gibney, Margrett and other good buyers  liked horses with plenty of bone - they refused to buy "weeds," nor would weeds get a prize at any show they judged at - India buyers were popular as horse show judges at the major shows in Australia too.

Pig-stickers... Australian horses won prizes at notable Indian horse shows. Polo ponies and pigsticking horses became famous too.The grey mare Granite was a grand pig sticker. She belonged to Lt-Col Douglas Gray, a great horseman. Pig stickers had to have tremendous courage, stamina, speed and agility - it was the most dangerous horse 'sport' - hunting large wild boars (never sows) that had ruined crops and often killed people - armed only with a spear. Noted pigstickers said Walers were the best.  The book 'Modern Pig Sticking' by Major Wardrop, published in 1914, speaks of his great love and admiration for Walers.

great story by Gray himself about Granite, selected by Steve Margrett, sold at the remount depot Mona in the Punjab, going to Skinner's Horse .....


Gray with Hermione and Granite, his Walers that were courageous pig-stickers, from above link.

illustration from Maj. Wardrop's book.



Horses in McPhie and Company's saleyards, Toowoomba, Queensland, 1936.
Photo: Queensland State Library.



~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::



Ports of departure (Australia) ...

Victoria: Port Melbourne, Geelong, Williamstown.
New South Wales: Sydney, Newcastle, Port Stephens
Queensland: Brisbane (Pinkenba), Townsville, Cairns, Cooktown, Bowen, Rockhampton, Gladstone, Bundaberg
Western Australia: Fremantle (Perth), Geraldton (Champion Bay), Bunbury, Wyndham, Cossack (previously Tsien Tsin, name change 1872. Now a ghost town in the Port Walcott area). Port Walcott.
South Australia: Adelaide (Port Adelaide), Port Augusta
Northern Territory: Darwin (Port Darwin)

Tasmania: Hobart, Launceston, Devonport, Emu Bay.

Ports listed above were used for the commercial shipping of horses. Other ports were used to ship horses for us for war purposes, chiefly the Boer War and WW1 e.g. Albany; these are covered well elsewhere by others - here am studying horse sales. 

Queensland was blessed with many good ports and good horses. Those inland were sometimes overlanded down to South Australia (some great stories and characters, and horses being swapped and dropped here and there!). Brisbane and Townsville were unsafe, shallow ports until the horse trade started and demand led to the building of decent wharves and dredging etc took place - horse trading meant these places getting big decent port facilities, vital for all trade. Likewise rail systems went in to bring horses from saleyards to ports. Horses first went from Gladstone in 1859, for Lt-Col O'Connell, grandson of Captain William Bligh - the same year Queensland was declared a separate state. O'Connell had horses only, no cattle, on his pioneering station of Riverstone.


'P. E. Hawkins on horse 'Shamrock' at Lyrian Downs, Cloncurry. Shamrock came 2nd in the camp draft.'
State Library of Queensland
A magnificent Queensland horse. Cloncurry horse sales were held from 1908, horses from the Gulf sold there too.




 Mob of yarded  horses, Newcastle Waters Station
Northern Territory, 1930.
source




Territory - Central Australia - few horses went from Port Darwin, most were overlanded to South Australian ports by droving and rail. Important and vast horse breeding areas. A depot at Port Darwin would have helped, one was mooted in 1868-9 but due to various reasons didn't appear. Lord Napier and Lord Seymour Fitzgerald, highly experienced cavalry men who had campaigned Australian horses over immense distances, were keen for a Port Darwin depot, Napier even wanted army ships to bring horses over from there. They were outvoted by seat polishers in army admin.

Horses from Tasmania usually went to Victoria for resale and/or re-shipping, commercial horse trading petered out due to costs by WW1 in Tas. There had been a good solid trade from Tasmania, some to India but especially to mainland breeders from earliest colonial days. After WW1 Walers were brought in rather than out (from an interview I did some years ago with an old farmer/WW2 soldier in his 90's who attended sales at Remount Road of Walers brought over by ship from the mainland, the best you could buy he said, tireless, great workers and for riding; he'd lived on a dairy farm near Deloraine). In 1845 a cavalry officer authorised to buy for the East India service, arrived in Hobart to buy horses.

Not all ports were used for the horse market of course. Those listed were for the overseas trade - many other ports were used for coastal shipping around Australia, horses were often transported by ship as it was faster than overlanding.

Western Australia had a fair trade although not as big as NSW, Vic, Qld and SA it was significantly bigger than Tas and the NT, port-wise. Tsien Tien and Cossack were both ships - a small settlement in the north west was named after first one, then the other. Horses were shipped from Cossack regularly. Of interest, Tsien Tien the ship took 50 horses from WA for export in 1862. She was well known in WA and had taken parties with livestock including horses to the north west. The port of Cossack, being on a tidal creek, was eventually forsaken. While coastal horse trade used other ports along the vast WA coastline, not all were not used to take commercial loads out - often taking the horses to Fremantle instead for shipping on bigger vessels. They started early, swinging into a good regular trade from the 1840's. It went well into the late nineteenth century then petered out. Geraldton could be a dangerous place to moor at times.

Some NSW, S.A., N.T. and Vic horses were overlanded and/or railed to other states for embarkation. 

South Australia started exporting early and it remained a large trade over a century, due in later times to Sir Sid Kidman's active promotion of the horse trade through his famous sales and trips to India. Traders such as Stephen Ralli started horse ships calling there but horses were often railed to Victoria until Jim Robb got them to call at Port Adelaide assuring them of a full load. Many S.A. horses went by rail and ship to W.A, the Rasheed Brothers had this trade well in hand. Adelaide Steamship Company was castigated in the news in 1889 for taking more care loading and unloading horses from ships than women and children, who had to wait for the horses to be taken care of first, and which took hours, they took very good care of horses. The Tenasserim took 50 horses to Calcutta from Port Adelaide in 1850 for breeder Captain John Ellis; said to be the first load to India from that port.



~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::



Ports of arrival for our horses (world)...


Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Ceylon, India.
Batavia, Samarang, Belawin Deli, Java, Denpassar, Bali, Dutch East Indies (Indonesia).
Ujina, Yokohama, Kobe, Tokyo, Japan.
Port Arthur, Manchuria (China).
Singapore (was part of Malaya until 1965, a British colony).
Hong Kong
Shanghai, Tsiensin, Newchang, Tangu/Taku (for Pekin), Canton. Wei-Hai-Wei, Foochow (Fuzhou); umpteen others, China 
Bangkok, Siam (Thailand).
Noumea, New Caledonia
Port Vila, New Hebrides
Norfolk Island
Manila, Philippines.
Port Moresby, New Guinea
Djibouti: French Somaliland, Africa
Gallipoli, Turkey (WW1)
Durban, Port Elizabeth, Cape Town, South Africa
Port Louis, Mauritius.
Dar es Salaam, German East Africa (Tanzania).
Angra Pequena (now Luderitz), German South West Africa (Namibia).
Aden (mostly en route to Suakim)
Suakim, Port Sudan, Sudan.
Hamburg, Germany
Malaya
Rangoon, Burma (Myanmar).
Port Said, Egypt.
London, England.
Auckland, Wellington, Otago, Dunedin (Port Chalmers and Port Dunedin), Invercargill, Lyttleton, Canterbury, Bay of Islands New Zealand.
Colombo, Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
Levuka, Suva, Labassa, Fiji.
Straits Settlements. 
Saigon, Hai Phong, Vietnam.
Honolulu, Hawaii.
Tahiti.
Tonga.
Beira, Portugese East Africa (Mozambique).
Guam.
Marquesas (part of French Polynesia).
Numerous WW1 and WW2 ports, covered well by others. 
Russia.
San Fransciso, California, North America.



~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::


 
Japan, Siam (Thailand), Abyssinia (Ethiopia) covered in other blogs.





A few notes for countries not covered in other blogs...

Russia... a small market for obvious reasons - being so far away and having plenty of good horses themselves - but the Russians did buy a few from us, notably Thoroughbreds for breeding racehorses, hacks and military horses. The Russian government bought a horse from Australia in 1898 for stud duties, this horse was bred in NZ, a stallion named Pounamu of impeccable lineage, being by Nordenfeldt, he by Musket which also sired the immortal Carbine; out of Lady Beryl.

They also captured a couple of thousand Walers in the Russo-Japanese war when their Navy caught Australian and Japanese horse ships as prizes, some of these horses were taken to Vladivostock.

The Russians bought many horses at the Kalgan horse sales (Kalgan is also called Zhangjiakou) in 1904. Kalgun is about 110 miles north-west of Pekin - a major horse sale of China from where a lot of Tea Horse Road horses were bought and sold, particularly Mongolian ponies. It was on the old caravan route to Russia from China, in the imperial horse pastures - vast grasslands - and was a gate-town in the Great Wall, in fact the Great Wall has its highest point there. An important place for horses for centuries. "The horse fair just outside the Mongol side of the Great Wall at Chan-kia-kow, and which is held every morning on an esplanade there, is a most exciting scene... We do not doubt it, or the qualities of the Mongol ponies... It appears that the Chinese are invariably the brokers between them and the purchasers of their ponies..." Alexander Mitchie, The Siberian Overland Route, Pekin to St Petersburg, published 1863. Mitchie and James Grant travelled this route in 1861-2, Mitchie wrote a book on it, describing the horse sales in depth at Kalgun, the tea caravans, Russians travelling to Pekin in carriages, horses and ponies along the way etc. Tobacco and bricks of tea did them for money en route. Grant did a paper for the Royal Geographical Society and mentioned the Russians called this town Kalgun.

Russians stationed in China had for decades bought Australian horses and ponies for racing and hacks, so were familiar with them; some may well have been sent to war and/or taken home.

Russians were trying to get a railway to Kalgan from Moscow built in the early twentieth century. It's possible a few Australian horses were among the horses the Russians bought at Kalgan - nearby Pekin (port of Taku) being a regular port of call for our ships, they took a few horses most trips. 

The Russians also captured a good Australian stud stallion, Hyman, from the Germans in WW1, at the Trakhener stud.

Russians were admired here for being great horsemen - the way to an Australian's heart before motors came along was to be good with horses. Horses from the Don were praised in the press, reports on Russian horse-breeding appeared in the news regularly. In 1906 an article said government horse studs were white elephants - costing too much due to corrupt generals running them, and should be passed from the war department to the agriculture department to become viable.

Russians migrated here at times. A Russian horse-breaker from Moscow was among the convicts sent to Australia details, good article.

Many travellers reports always praised the horses in Vladivostock in glowing terms. Our trading ships finished their Asia run at Vladivostock, taking wool, wheat, frozen meat etc, many were ships that also carried horses, usually dropped off en route through Asia.

In October 1901 it was reported the British army bought 16,000 horses from Russia to send to the war in South Africa.

Russians bought Thoroughbreds (Australian-bred) from us - such as the outstanding horse Great Scot - a chestnut son of Lochiel and Scotch Mary which won the Australian Cup and other good races. His sire Lochiel had beaten Carbine in a race thus becoming a legend himself. Great Scot was taken to our hearts as a valiant champion.



The Thoroughbred Great Scot source

Great Scot was bought by noted horse trader Dick McKenna in 1903 for 2,000 guineas - a huge sum. McKenna had been given unlimited money to buy a good racehorse for the Hon. A.A. Apcar (later Sir) of India.


Great Scot was sent to India and covered himself in glory by winning two Viceroy's Cups, 1903 and 1904 - the Viceroy's Cup was the equivalent of the Melbourne Cup in international prestige. News articles here followed his career with lengthy, emotional reporting. The Australian public was nuts over great horses. He won all prizes at the Bangalore horse show too.

From India Great Scot was sold to England where he won more races. There was an uproar of disbelief in Australian news when in 1913 he failed to get a prize at the King's horse show. He went to stud briefly in England then was bought by Russia in 1913 for 1,000 guineas, to go to a government stud to be put over half-bred mares for military horses. Thus, using a proven stayer over half breds was the same method used to create Walers, and the same method used in Prussia-Germany.

Figaro, Blackadder, Wisemac and other Australian racehorses were also bought by the Russians prior to the Bolshevik era, in the early twentieth century, to breed racehorses and military horses. They were bought from England, having gone there from India.

Dear old Great Scot, a flashy fellow of three white stockings and blaze standing 16.2 hh, was keenly reported on here, the Russians kindly letting us know how he was - even in the midst of war! - in 1916 it was reported he was well thought of and cared for, at a Russian government stud but not bred to Thoroughbreds and private breeders were also sending mares to him. In the Leader (Melbourne) in 1918, it was reported Great Scot had thrown some good 2 year olds. Hilariously, in the horse-mad spirit of the day, the opinion was given the Bolsheviks must not be as bad as they were portrayed for they looked after horses! article

In WW1 Australians on Walers fought alongside Russians on their horses in Mesopotamia and Persia when our 1st Wireless Squadron supported Baratov's Russian Force (1st Caucasian Division). They had a lot of good horses there which stood the work as well as ours. Several photos in the AWM.




Straits Settlements... This was often a destination for horses leaving Australia. They were the British crown colony of Malacca, Dinding, Penang (also called Prince of Wales Island) and Singapore which went from 1868 until 1946. Christmas Island and Cocos Island were in the Settlements. 

These days Singapore is independent, Christmas and Cocos Islands with Australia and the rest with Malaysia. One needs to look for Straits Settlements as a destination when researching; it was a very good trade.



The Straits Settlements, a British Crown Colony, bought a lot of horses and ponies from us.



Germany &  German South West Africa... in 1908 Germany bought horses for their colony of German South West Africa. In papers at the time here it was called erroneously German East Africa, but once the destination port was known correct news went out.

German South West Africa was a Portuguese, then British, then German colony, belonging to Germany 1884-1915; now called Namibia. 

German officers went looking at horses at Chartres Towers in Queensland, the heart of Queensland Waler country in 1908. Wolfgang Schmidt of Baulkham Hills N.S.W. was chosen as one agent for buying up young horses for German orders for army remounts, in 1908. He bought some from around the Hawkesbury area and all his horses were taken to Castle Hill near his home for handling and breaking before being sent to away. An interesting character who at times ran a riding school, Schmidt also dabbled in horse trading, he sent the odd horse away to various countries.

In 1908 420 horses went over on the Dorset, closely followed by another 200 on the Everton Grange, part of an order for 2,000 for German South West Africa. Both ships went to Angra Pequena (now called Luderitz) the port of German South West Africa. The horses were very favourably reported on. It appears no more were bought, perhaps due to matters on the ground there (grim, atrocities).

The year before in 1907 a load of artillery horses was sent to Hamburg, Germany, from Queensland. German agents came and sourced these horses in February, on advice they were bought from a tick free area - for a while the Qld govt stopped horses crossing the Tweed into Qld, so ticks would not be given to any horses the Germans chose. It was not reported how this trial shipment was received (will post if found).

There was a lot of interest in Germany as many early Australian settlers were German/Prussian. There was an early British-Australian immigration department in Hamburg where immigrants were given information about Australia in German and an assisted passage available (same as the 10 pound poms) to make it affordable to come out. 

There were regular reports here of the Imperial (German/Prussian) horse breeding from the 1840's, and on. In 1869 the Trakehnen stud was discussed. Various antics of Royalty and their horses reported (being of course the same family as the Royals in England). Travellers sent reports back to our newspapers, for example in 1882 a lengthy report on how they trained their cavalry horses and men, and the breeding studs for cavalry and artillery horses. 

In 1884 lengthy reviews and quotes from Count Georg von Lehndorff books Horse Breeding Reminiscences (published in English) and extracts in English from his Manual of Horse Breeding (he was Master of Horse to the Imperial German Emperor) - his ideas and discussion of Thoroughbred lines being avidly read here, where horse breeding was an obssession. No doubt many breeders here, producing Walers from top staying Thoroughbred lines, wisely nodded in agreement with the Count! They would have sympathised with his wife who once served oats instead of soup at dinner, so much horse talk filled the house! 

In 1910 our papers had lengthy discussions about Burchard von Oettingen's book Horse Breeding in Theory and Practise - he being the director at the Trakehnen stud at that time, mentions of the East Prussian Studbook etc, he didn't like Arabs; like Lehendorff, Oettingen chose TB's proven in racing and importantly draughts proven in work, not bought on looks. Australian breeders of military horses by then were losing their affection for the TB, which was changing, this was pointed out in articles, also the disagreements about the method of raising young stock.

1895 reports of a big cattle and horse show at Hamburg where it was hoped Australia could show animals (can't find it happening). 1899 a good report by the Reik family on their cattle and horses spoke in glowing terms of the Friesian and Oldenburg horses. Many others similar. In 1908 reports of the German studs mentioned the draughts used for artillery horses - Shires, Clydes, and Germanic/French/Dutch breeds.  They also made excellent work horses, the same with artillery Walers.


In 1898 a very expensive Australian TB, Carnage (Nordenfeldt - Mersey) was purchased by Germany for stud duties, price 10,000 guineas. Carnage was actually bred in NZ, Mersey being the dam of the immortal Carbine. In 1899 a traveller to the stud at Graditz (near Berlin) where Count Lehndorff, world famous horseman ran things, and to Trakehnen (Prussia) spoke mentioned Carnage was among the stallions there, and spoke highly of the studs. 

In 1905 Dr Mackellar M.L.C. of  NSW went over to study German horse breeding, and met the Count. It seemed TB and a dash of Arab was their breeding ideal at that stage. They'd bought super expensive Irish TB stallions. Mackellar went as India complained our horse quality was dropping off - it was because we were selling giant amounts of good horses to Japan that year - they were paying well. He brought back photos ... news report from Mackellar

Anyway the Germans liked our horses - thousands had been bought by them for the Boxer Rebellion in 1900 - one order was 9,000 horses - not sure if this was filled but certainly at least 5,000 went for them, as have found in archives thus far, probably a lot more. At the same time we were sending horses to other nations at the Boxer Rebellion, Boer War, Philippines, India for the Sudan war raging throughout the horn of Africa, Dutch East Indies etc. Demand for horses was huge. A July 1901 edition of German newspaper Kreutz Zeitung praised the Australian horses in an article sent by their Pekin correspondant.

In 1902 Germany shipped many of these Boxer Rebellion horses to Germany from China at considerable cost. They let the Chinese choose some chargers before taking their Australian horses to Germany, landing them at Bremerhaven (400 went on the steamer Alesia) where the geldings went to Lockstedt near Hamburg, a military base. The mares were sent to East Prussia for remount breeding. Germany's best military horses were bred there, so they had a high opinion of Walers. In 1912 the Kaiser was chuffed that horses from this stud performed brilliantly at the Olympics. Perhaps it was the magic ingredient, ahem.

When German agents were looking at horses for sale in 1900 in Australia they were very particular and chose wisely. Where possible they personally hopped on and tried the horses out, breeders didn't mind this as they paid for quality. Herr Von Ploenies, the German Imperial Consul, oversaw the horse purchases before they were shipped, travelling to Bowen to check many of them out with veterinary surgeon Mr Irving and a Mr Breymann. They also took care with travel arrangements, looking after their horses very well and cussing roundly when our railways were not brisk enough. Good horsemen who cared every step of the way. McDougall and Co bought 500 good horses for them in the Warwick area. Glasscock bought thousands in Victoria.

There was strong competition between the English and German agents for good horses here at Boxer Rebellion time so prices soared. The South Australian government feted the German buyers - great customers. 1900 was a year everyone wanted horses including ourselves. 

Thousands went to the Germans  from SA, NSW, Vic and Qld all in the year 1900 - on steamers the Kirklee which carried 210, the Claverton which carried 300, Ness carried 585, the Boveric carried 600, the Ras Dara 250, the Willehad hundreds, the Guthrie hundreds, the Chingtu hundreds, the Isleworth hundreds, and the Hyson a massive load of 925 horses; plus 6,000 tons of fodder for them was shipped with the horses etc. A contract for 3,000 horses to be supplied within 2 months was filled, these were the horses on above steamers.

Ness was caught by severe heat on the way, in Torres Strait - and half her horses went mad and died. It was terrible, and 20 of the crew were badly affected. The Captain deviated his course to escape the heat, went through the Malacca Straits and stood out in the Pacific Ocean to get breezes to save the poor horses. The Captain landed them at Taku. He spent 10 days looking about Tongu and Tientsin, being shocked at the widespread devastation from the war and the barbaric savagery of the Russians which the British were trying to stop, and the looting by all. At one stage he hid on a beach with his revolver for a night as fighting went on.

Herr Breeman, elected a member of the German Empire Judging Commission, wrote to the Agricultural Gazette in April 1901 praising the Australian horses they'd bought in China as being the best of all horses there, saying 500 would be sent back to Germany, recommending the German army to buy more from Australia. Reports whinging about the horses in Germany were untrue he said, adding that Vice Consul Grunow in Australia, a vet, checked the horses before leaving. 


Nine of the steamers mentioned had the horses for the Germans loaded by shipping firm Weber, Lohmann Co., which reported in the news when the horses were landed in China. Five other steamers went through other shippers. Pit, Son and Badgery also bought horses in NSW for the Germans (theirs went on the Gutherie, a vet report on arrival praised them for being landed in splendid condition), while Campbell and Son bought in Melbourne and A. J. Cotton in Bowen and throughout Queensland. All horses for the Germans had to be broken in prior to sailing. They paid handsomely, 40 pounds a horse - the British paid us 14 pounds at the time. Easy to see who got the best horses.

It was reported Count Waldersee, Supreme Allied Commander in the Boxer Rebellion, was greatly pleased with the Australian horses.

German-Australian Line steamers ran regularly from Australia to Hamburg and Bremen (on the same trips usually calling at Antwerp, Belgium and Rotterdam, Holland), they had big cargoes and usually carried a few horses on each trip but it's likely these were for Java or Singapore or Hong Kong - various ports on the way - for example the steamer Flensburg went to Hambu
rg in 1901 with horses but was stopping at Java en route, same with the Essen in 1895 which went to Hamburg but papers reported she dropped 58 horses at Singapore on the way and a further 58 at Colombo. The Harburg took 26 horses to Hamburg in 1900.

Very few went all the way (will add as found) bearing in mind few cargoes itemised... 20 horses on the Lothringen, July 1911, to Bremen - a load of Schmidt's jumpers and a brown horse without a hair of white for the Crown Prince, by Skopos out of Welcome, that was champion at Camden Show; and champion pony racer Hauriki. 4 horses on the Cassel, January 1912, to Bremen, another load for Schmidt in 1914 as below.

The 1911 shipment included nine show horses from John Phillips of Mt Kelag Wollongong, bought by Schmidt, they were TB's or by TB sires. Although he was called Lieutenant Schmidt at times it's not known if this was an affectation or if he'd been in the German army. All were at least 16 hands high. He bought more from other people and took the 20 horses to Germany in one load. He personally popped them all over 4 foot 6 inch jumps to try them out, as was his way, Schmidt liked to try horses over big jumps whether they'd jumped before or not, a rather gung-ho chap. He rode to hounds.

January 1914 on the steamer Alrich, a new cargo ship built in Bremen, Australia sent a load of horses over for the German government - jumpers, hacks, breeders and chargers. This was thanks to an outstanding horse named Merman and our old mate Schmidt.


The Thoroughbred Merman
by Grand Flaneur out of Seaweed 
foaled 1892.
 A typical looking stayer, tall and lean, he won over 4,000 metres in first class company. 
Mr Jersey was the name used by Lillie Langtry to race horses.


'The Australian Horse.
THE CHARGER.
(By MERRIGANG)
That cable that came from the old country the other day about a soldier chap wanting to buy Mrs. Langtry's racehorse, Merman, for a charger wasn't bad. A light-legged, pampered thoroughbred like Merman wouldn't be of much account as a charger, He'd look all right, maybe, to dodge about at a review in the park, and so on ; but if it came to right down blood and thunder business, he'd just waste away like a sucked lolly...'
Sydney Stock and Station Journal 18th October 1898
  
Merman had died at Hanover that year, and an Australian replacement was sought. The Germans looked at our horses with great interest. 

Merman had been bred in Australia. He was shipped to England, bought by famous beauty Lillie Langtry for whom he won the prestigious Goodwood Cup, Ascot Gold Cup, Cesarewitch etc. A great staying racehorse and immensely tough (his trainer praised him for never breaking down under a hard regime) but he didn't do much at stud; hence the Germans got him at a good price. They had great success putting him over half-breds for cavalry horses. Schmidt reported on this, he seemed to know everything that mattered in the German horse world saying Merman led to them being interested in more of our horses. 

The breeding horses Schmidt sent over on this 1914 load were mostly very expensive Thoroughbreds to be used for breeding cavalry and artillery horses, most purchased over December 1913 and included stallions Parsee (Derby winner, Schmidt paid 3,000 guineas for him), Gyarran, Dunmore, Glee Boy, Hyman and Cadonia (Sydney Cup winner), all bought for the Germans by good old Wolfgang with noted horse trader A. J. Morton arranging the purchase of Hyman for 1750 guineas on behalf of Count Sponeck of the Trakehnen Stud. Schmidt also bought the good galloper Nuwara Eliya, a grey (white) reportedly for a German stud where only white horses were bred. Parsee went over first, the Count in charge of the stud where he went thought highly of him hence the others were bought - Schmidt was given a big sum to spend and he shopped for Thoroughbreds. They followed breeding methods used to create Walers too, TB's over draught crosses etc. Cadonia had a bad temperament which was politely pointed out, but Schmidt liked that in him, saying he was a stayer and that bad natured horses threw tough progeny (a bad natured horse would never be used to breed Walers, it would be culled). 

Schmidt had moved here from Germany in 1904 (bio below). A follow up report was published in June 1914 when Mr Schmidt was back in Sydney - he said people's opinions of Cadonia differed - one presumes sensible horse people were not a fan! although he had a letter from Graf (Count) Georg von Lehndorff approving of him. If genuine, one of the last acts by this grand old horseman as the Count died in April that year, he doubtlessly thought the temperament was caused by humans great horsey info about the Count. 


Schmidt reported Cadonia and Hyman were at the Prussian Imperial stud at Graditz mostly going over TB mares, and Parsee, highly regarded, was standing at Trakehnen in East Prussia going over heavy mares. Russia later annexed this area. The story of this stud, like that of the extraordinarily brave von Lehndorff family, is remarkable. 


The famous stud at Trakehnen
 source

In August 1914 Schmidt travelled to Yenda Station to see a TB stallion running there, Flaxen, and arranged to buy him, with Lewis Nathan putting up funds on the strength of Schmidt assuring him the German government wanted good horses, they bought many more - but war had been declared - our government stopped the horses leaving. Left seriously in debt, Lewis Nathan tried racing some of the horse to recoup losses, but went bankrupt.  

Another report published in 1920 said Cadonia broke a leg (so much for a vicious nature being toughness) and was destroyed in 1919, the good horse Hyman was captured by the Russians in the war and not heard of since; and much loved Parsee was at stud at the Trakehnen stud and in splendid condition and had thrown many beautiful foals.

German horses. In 1905 an Oldenburg stallion which had been imported to Sydney, came across to Adelaide and was put on view and for auction at the famous John Bull Horse Bazaar. His name was Laban, a very handsome stallion of good temperament with mighty bone. No doubt some of his progeny went back to auction and were sold to the India trade. Bred by G. Tholen of Hullenerfehn, he was foaled in 1898, the progeny of registered East Friesians. 

Several German coaching stallions came here, some were sent bush to breed remounts. One named Corporal ran on Bangheet station in north-west NSW with many Waler mares. Out of a chestnut Waler mare there with a blaze, he threw a black colt with a race and two socks. It grew over 17 hands and was named Black Prince. He was presented to General Baden-Powell by our government for a charger, at Boer War time, taken to Cape Town by horse trader J.G. Rowley with another horse, Orara, also for Baden-Powell. After the war they were taken to England where Black Prince became a favorite with Baden-Powell and his children, and family friend the artist Lucy Kemp-Welch. 

Black Prince became the model for her Forward the Guns painting, and ironically the Forward! war propaganda poster. He was most famously the model for her Black Beauty book illustrations - the 1915 edition which became a success. When Black Prince died peacefully in his stable aged 30, Baden-Powell kindly sent a favorite photo of himself riding the old chap, with letter about his passing, back to Australia.



India... What can I say. Our biggest buyer, worthy of several books. Where the Waler got its name and reputation. Countless horses from the early nineteenth century right up to the 1960's. In 1930 for example, 7,000 horses had been shipped from Queensland alone, during September and October. One of the early loads was 50 horses shipped over in 1844 - some sent by a woman, Miss Johnson; another 110 went on the Equestrian that year to Madras. Many famous regiments and people rode Walers, from the Viceroys and Rajah's down. Rudyard Kipling mentions them in his writings, as did his father John Kipling who admired them greatly, but who said he could not afford one - in his time they became the most expensive horses in India. Indian armies have been the backbone of the Allies in world wars and other British wars - the real fighters and most numerous. Tremendous horsemen for centuries, indeed, millenia - one of the oldest horse cultures in the world. Many fine mounted regiments with fabulous histories rode Walers. Also - skilful polo players the British tried hard to emulate but could not better. The Waler was in excellent hands, and shown to advantage by the Indian riders, and the many British there.

R.D. Ross went over in 1869 on a government mission looking into the horse trade, he reported a Commission looking into army horses in India was scathing of Australian horses sent to Madras, however several officers and soldiers there said the opposite - that they were the best. They were about 19% of army horses there at that stage. It appeared many shiploads were going over but some were entrepreneurs, horses were not looked after en route, they arrived thin, dirty and shaky. The professional horse trader had not quite come of age. There was a strong preference for the Persian too, a fashion some clung to. "Colonel Rowlandson, of the Madras Horse Artillery, and Colonel Maxwell, of the Bengal Horse Artillery, I have been talking to, and they agree that the ' Waler' (as they term the Australian horse) is the best animal for hard service that they get now-a-days." R.D. Ross.

In our colonial days we imported horses from India which went into the genesis of the Waler. In 1806 an Indian bred horse named Hector, of no further breeding records but said to be stud bred, was imported to Sydney - he stood 16 hands. He had an impact on early bloodlines and his daughter Betty threw winners and the blood continues in the ASB  (Australian Stud Book, for Thoroughbreds). Some were Indian ponies and horses; some were Arab horses. Many colonials here had lived and worked in India, and knew their horses well. The British in India sourced horses from the Levant often - mostly Turkey, Syria and Palestine. The Turkey market became difficult and expensive and sales heavily restricted. So they turned to the Arab traders themselves for horses - those who brought horses directly to India to sell, usually from the great horse port of Bussorah (now Basra), some from Muscat. Levant horses came down to Bussorah to be sold, and horses from all over Arabia and Persia. As the people of Persia and Arabia didn't like mares to go out of their countries, the horses traded were invariably stallions. Over centuries of similar trading - the earlier influx was in the Mughal era - it's thought the native horses and ponies of India thus gained a lot of Persian and Arabian horse genes. In Bombay during the British era, Arab horse dealers set up stables for selling - most held 1,000 to 1,500 horses. Their stables were always clean and sweet according to reliable sources, and written up here for example in 1906 in The Queenslander. The British had fallen in love with the Eastern type of light horse from the time of Charles II, (many being Barbs and Dongolas from Africa, many from the Levant and Persia and Arabia) - it became a sign of success to own one. Arab and Persian horses were the mount of choice for those who could afford them in India.. It took the military in India a time to replace the place in their hearts for this breed with Walers; some preferred Walers, some remained faithful to their Arab steeds. Abdul Rahman was a famous horse dealer in Bombay. 

With this wealth of Arab blood available in India (one must point out the Arab horse was a different kettle of fish to those seen these days, praised here for their good temperament and bone - s0me measuring 9 inches of bone). Most were expensive. Some came out here very early. Hence some of their blood went into the Waler, although not much as other breeds which came here in far greater numbers; the input was more via the Thoroughbred here. The Australian Stud Book (ASB) has more Arab blood than other TB studbooks because of this Indian input in our colonial days.

'The Arab steed competes very closely with his brother, the Waler, and as no mares are ever allowed to be shipped from Arabia, the many thousands of Arab horses in use in India are all imported, the trade forming a very large and lucarative business to the men engaged. Most of the animals are sent from one or other of the provinces bordering on the Persian Gulf.
One of the objects of interest noted in the guide books to Bombay are the Arab Stables in the Bhendi Bazaar, where at times are to be seen some of the finest horses in the East.' 
Typical Pictures of Indian Natives by F.M. Coleman, 1902.

India itself of course had grand breeds until colonisation ran roughshod over everything, and some of this blood went into the Waler, thus returned to India in disguised form. 

A good Australian book on horses, of the times, is Edward M. Curr's Pure Saddle Horses and how to breed them in Australia, published 1863. He travelled in England, Europe, Spain and the Middle East and discourses wisely on the Arab horses of the time and the sorts sent to India, thence here. Available to read free online. 


In 1938 the army in India telegrammed the major horse dealers in Australia to say they would no longer be buying horses. It was the end of a great era and caused much consternation among trading families. Sales, far smaller, continued to India for racehorses and polo ponies. The Indian government did buy more horses for military purposes but in smaller and more occasional orders through to the 1960's. Mechanisation had taken over.

The Nizam of Deccan (Hyderabad), the wealthiest man in the world and very horsey, chose Walers for his army and stud. He also paid the Indian government for the upkeep of two regiments. His own army included the famous 9th Deccan Horse (various names over its history such as Nizam's Cavalry, finally absorbed into the 20th Deccan). Needless to say like all Indian regiments they served courageously in many wars, at times alongside us in France and Palestine.




20th Deccan Horse at Bazetin Ridge, WW1, on their Walers.
photo: wiki.



Referring to the Australian Walers taken by the Indian cavalry to France, M. Gullet, the official press correspondent, writes: "Horses never looked better, and were never more appreciated by their owners than the thousands of Australian Walers in France. Some of the men were mounted on Arabs, and some on'Indian country-breds,' and a few on thick-set horses from England. But there was no doubt as to the favourites. Officers declared the Arabs not up to their heavy task, and, the little horses of the desert, with all their gallant bearing, were obviously over-loaded..." 
Clarence and Richmond Examiner, June 1915. 
(Sir) Henry Gullet later wrote Vol VII of the the official history of WW1 for Australia: A.I.F. in Sinai, Palestine and Syria.

The fabulously wealthy Paigah family of India also bought Walers for their armies, polo and so on. Add the Maharaja's and other people, and one can see it was a big market. Hyderabad had managed to stay free from India until 1948 but co-operated for various wars during nearby British occupation. Of interest it was General El Edroos of the Nizam's army who met Indian officers on surrender terms in 1948 after the Nizam conceded Hyderabad to India. El Edroos, a fine man and great soldier, had earlier spent his long service leave travelling around Australia looking at Waler breeding stations, being a great admirer of the breed, as the Nizam's troops had been mounted on Walers until mechanisation came along. The Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, also donated 5 tons of gold to India for war efforts in 1947, the largest ever gift of a private person to an army. It was 3/4 of his annual income. A frugal man, he politely asked for the boxes back. Hyderabad is still horsey and has a fine mounted police department on nice looking horses, be interesting to know their origins. The last Nizam, Mukarram Jah, moved to Australia in the early 1970's and bought Murchison House Station in WA where he kept busy with improvements and was very happy. Brumbies there at that stage were descendants of Gascards horses, extra good Walers. But back in India some people stole most of his fortune, sadly he was sold up here and moved to live in reduced circumstances in Turkey. The Nizams are fabulous, intelligent people who never abused their privileges and who did Walers proud.

The Maharajah of Cooch Behar was a fabulous customer for horses. Polo ponies, hacks, carriage horses and racehorses. One racehorse he bought, Highborn, had come fourth in the Melbourne Cup, won the Sydney Cup, Australian Cup and went on to win the 1892 and 1893 Viceroy's Cups for the Maharajah. In charge of his Thoroughbred stables was an Australian, Mr. L. Oakley, who proudly sent photos of Highborn back to a newspaper here, showing the gelding in far better condition than he ever was in Australia. He won more races for the Maharajah in 1893 and 1894, then the Maharajah dropped out racing for a while. A champion English racing pony Predominance, that he owned, was sent to Australia and threw many good race ponies here. An Australian pony in turn, First Bell, won the Civil Service Cup for the Maharajah. His Australian racepony Comewell, 13.3 hands, went on to become a champion polo pony for him.

The Maharaja of Ulwar, Mangal Singh, who was a Lieutenant in the British army and Commander-in-Chief of his own native army, came to Australia in 1890 with his brother, the Dewar of Ulwar. Ulwar is in south Delhi. The Maharaja was on a trip to recover from illness, a sea voyage having been prescribed. While here he bought several valuable horses for his stables back home, said to be among the best in India. He visited the eastern states where he bought horses, and also visited WA. A young man, he was written up in glowing terms. 

In 1929 the Maharaja of Dhar's stud master Mr G. Crisp visited, attending the Melbourne Royal where he sought to buy a 14.3 pony and a charger. The Maharaja's stud had 3 stallions and 40 mares, 10 of which were Australian.

The Maharajah of Patiala was another great customer. Teddy Weekes took horses and ponies over for him, and George Clark. He bought the pony Midnight for an amazing 4,000 rupees (250 pounds) in 1897; Midnight was a noted high jumper.

The Maharajah of Kolhapur also bought many good horses, a great customer. In 1938 the steamer Muttra took a load of excellent horses over for him including a pair of match greys.

In 1926 an Australian horse named Bronzewing ridden by Miss L.C. Bucks, won best horse in show at the big Simla show.

We sent horses over during WW2 as India had several mounted units, artillery, mountain batteries using horses. 800 went over in January 1939 on the Quiloa, another shipload in April, 250 went over for the Nizam  of Deccan. 105 breeding racehorses in 1941 (racehorses went over constantly through the war).

Last charge... Walers took part. In March 1942 Captain Arthur Sandeman led his 60 mounted Sikhs of the Central India Horse (21st King George V's Own) in a sabre charge at Japanese near Toungoo, Burma. He'd thought he was approaching friendly Chinese but it was an ambush - he realised the error too late, it was surrender or charge - he sounded the trumpet. They charged machine guns. Sandeman and most of his men were killed. An example of Indian courage. The wounded died in POW camps. A few survivors and their horses made it back to India. The Indian army was vastly under-equipped at the start at WW2 having been told by Britain they would not be needed. They quickly realised otherwise and got an army together although were under-equipped. At one stage they realised some units were over-mechanised for the terrain and re-horsed a couple. They made a great fighting retreat from Burma and later in January 1945 swept back and with 100,000 Africans who had been holding the Japanese from victory in the toughest conditions, took Burma from the Japanese. Burma was the longest and bloodiest campaign of WW2. These horses were probably the last to charge for the British-Indian forces. The Indians however had more horse action even in WW2. 

The Gwalior Lancers, an Indian state force, charged at Arakan, Burma, in early 1944. Ian Sumner's book The Indian Army 1914-1947, Osprey Publishing 2001, has details.

Much later, in 1953, India's Northern Frontier Tribal Police were in northern Africa fighting Mau Mau. Near Isiolo, Kenya, they came on a large well mounted gang. There was no time to dismount, and knowing rifle accuracy from horseback was naff, Sergeant Yusef Abdulla ordered the charge. They charged and won, suffering only a broken rifle.

random extras... 
1946 shipload of 45 horses, mostly polo ponies, a few racehorses, and some 11 piebalds for the Maharaja of Gwalior who liked 'curiosity horses.'
1947 two big shiploads went from Adelaide, including 150 greys for chargers, also polo ponies.
1949 a shipment of 50 light draughts went over to Calcutta. 
Nice late market. still adding

India itself is an ancient horse culture, possibly the oldest, although it may have been pipped by Indonesia, both were riding horses long before other places. Horses are in the Indian DNA. Walers went to a grand tradition of horsemen there who brought out their best.





Ceylon... Ships stopped there to discharge and take on cargo and passengers en route to Madras, Calcutta etc. Stacks of horses went there. Roadsters, carriage horses, ponies, cobs, remounts, chargers, hacks etc. A report of 20 horses selling there at good prices in 1867. In 1881 it was estimated in a govt report there were 7,000 horses in Ceylon, most from Australia either directly or via India. James Lalor went over with several loads from Qld in 1893, 1894 1895. He chose to drive the horses through Rockhampton to Gladstone as fees were lower and loading a far better system. Robert Gordon took a load over from Qld in 1892. One of the Gidney brothers took a load there in 1891. etc. Two army Captains came over in 1890 buying horses.

A popular stopping port en route to India proper. A British possession 1815 - 1948 and always a strategic trading port. A good consistent trade, also for racehorses. Horses went there throughout WW2 and after, mostly racehorses. Over the years many Australians moved to India, many in racing. 

Ceylon was a popular stopping place to have a welcome break once horses were unloaded, while ships re-stocked with fresh food, then went on to Bombay or Calcutta. Everyone looked forward to Colombo. Many ships with damage limped in or were towed there for repairs over the years. 

Independence Day is celebrated on the 4th February each year when Ceylon became an independent dominion. The island gained full independence as a republic in 1972 and changed its name to Sri Lanka. Persecution of the Tamil people became a human rights concern. It is hoped civil peace and tolerance is finally being achieved.





Malaya... Malaysians and the British there bought horses from us. The heaven of Malaya - misty jungles, verdant polo fields, fantastic ancient culture. Glamorous Royal families to fall in love with.

In those days the Straits Settlements, which included Singapore, were not part of Malaya - if one considered them as being so, as they are now, then indeed the trade there was HUGE! Of course these are colonial created borders, as the people there know well. There were Malay kingdoms of big areas before colonisation; not just lands but dynasties and families were hugely changed, displaced at times by colonial aggression. Yet the Sultans were resiliant, they adapted and survived. At present there are 9 Sultans in Malaysia, which consists of 11 states and 2 territories. In our horse trading days, some of the Sultans, enormously wealthy, were great customers and great riders - they put Walers on the international stage. 


Curtis Skene sent over 88 horses from Scone in 1946 to replace horses killed in war. 

In 1959 & 1960 the Prime Minister of Malaya, Tunku Abdul Rahman, visited NSW and was shown horses as he was greatly interested, he also attended the 1959 Melbourne Cup. This Prime Minister loved horses and had granted 26 acres to the Selangor Polo Club in the 1960's. It became an outstandingly beautiful ground. 

The polo season in Malaysia is longer than most. The Malaysians are great riders with a long horse culture. There's a photo in Aust Archives of a Malaysian student in Australia with a grey hunt horse after a ride.

Malaya was a very good market for us - griffins, carriage horses, hacks, racehorses, race ponies, top quality polo ponies. They adored griffins! They liked griffins 14 to 14.2 hands - galloway size, as well as smaller, pony size. Races were in height classes. Dozens of Australians found employment in Malaysia as trainers and jockeys. There was a Griffin Inn at the Selangor Race Club. Newspaper article re griffins at end of page. Ponies went over for the Singapore Sporting Club, Penang Turf Club, Ipoh Gymkhana Club, Seremban Gymkhana Club, Klang Turf Club, Perak Turf Club and the Selangor Turf Club. The courses were very picturesque.

In 1933 trade figures were published, from the Minister for Commerce Mr. F. H. Stewart which stated 7,400 horses had been sold to British Malaya in 1931-32. However these figures usually included the Straits Settlements - Singapore being a major market.

Australia also gifted Malaya some big horses under the Columbo plan, for making snakebite serum. Due to the proximity with the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) horses and ponies were often bought from there, and of course Singapore is perched at the foot of Malaysia and was a tremendous horse market for us - no doubt many sold there went to Malaya, same with those sold to the Straits Settlements which are on the archipelago of Malaysia. 

His Highness the Sultan of Johore kept great stables in Malaya. He really gave Walers a great international profile, he was one of the wealthiest men in the world, and loved horses.

He kept polo ponies, enough to loan guests too, carriage horses, hacks and race horses and ponies. He also kept stables of horses in London and hunters in Leicestershire, and showed his trappers (trap horses) carriage horses and show hacks in Paris, Berlin and Dublin, winning prizes. 


He also kept a stable in India, all his best racehorses in India were Australian, one was champion hurdler there, many were household names, champions.


Sultan Ibrahim of Johore, left, and his Australian horse trainer George Redfearn. Photo in Adelaide at the races, 1903.

Photo source: The Sydney Mail and NSW Advertiser, June 1903.

The Sultan came to Australia in 1903 to buy horses and ponies, he stayed in Sydney and Melbourne, and bought a dozen racehorses including the Caulfield Cup winner, several hacks, carriage horses from the famous Kirks Bazaar and two top class racing ponies, one a mare named Minerva; a total of 35 quality animals. 

He engaged George Redfearn as his trainer while here, who travelled back with him. George had previously been a jockey, riding to Malvolio to victory in the 1891 Melbourne Cup, trained by his father. He became one of the leading trainers in Malaya.

There was an adventure as they headed home with all the horses plus some ponies shipped by George Kiss for Singapore and Rangoon - 80 head altogether - on the horse steamer Argus. 



Argus on the rocks of Goat Island
photo the Australian Town and Country Journal, August 1903.

Argus was a much loved ship, and this adventure of hers got a lot of news. She was a hard working little ship and met several adventures, she was considered 'lucky' as she usually managed to save her crew (one could say, vica versa!).


It was night when she left, the Sultan had retired for the evening and was in his berth when there was an almighty crash and the ship shook violently. Everyone rushed on deck in panic. The Sultan said after that he was rather excited about saving his horses. The lascar crew, always lauded, were marvellous - as they rushed about trying to save the ship the Sultan quickly released all horses with their help, as he spoke their language. Lascar were Asian and/or Indian crew - the best on horse ships as they were very kind to horses and always went out of their way to help the stockmen, unlike white crews; many accounts of them bringing little bits of their dinners to the horses for treats - bananas, curry, bread and standing by frightened horses talking gently to soothe them.

Horses freed, the Sultan set about calming other passengers - it was night and very scary. The ship was obviously sinking. It was a collision with another steamer, Mildura, in Sydney Harbour - Argus was holed so badly at her starboard bow, smashed with Mildura's bow, she started to sink by the head, listing badly. Water was coming fast into the engine room and would extinguish her fires any minute, hence kill her engine. 

Captain Currie kept his cool and ran her full steam ahead at nearby Goat Island in an attempt to beach her, but just before reaching it her front end struck on a reef so she grounded forward. The Captain kept her motors running full steam ahead to stop her sinking, as her stern end was hanging over deep water - he had lines paid out to determine depth. Boats were swung over the side for people to escape if needed - Argus was almost level again as water ran back from her bow to her stern area, filling her, more gushed in all the time. Soon the water would run back to the stern and pull her down. 

The horses were forward and had water swirling about their feet. Although kind to horses the lascars did not handle them as they were not experienced and were trying to save the ship. They were ship crew not horsemen. The Sultan and his men calmed the horses, ready to jump them off the ship so they could swim to land if the ship went down.

The steam tug Pluvius reached Argus and smartly got her pumps set up to keep pumping Argus out to stop her sinking. A government launch turned up and took all passengers and the Sultan and his men off - only the crew were allowed to remain aboard in case she went down. 

Although it increased damage by grinding over rock, the Captain kept running her motors which kept her afloat. Ropes were run out to the island to help keep her stable - if there had been a wind she'd have swung and sunk. Another tug turned up and got a hawser to keep her from swinging broadside to the island. 

Captain Currie was a great seaman, vastly experienced. Often described as a dour Scot who never smiled, everyone nonetheless praised him for being one of the best skippers ever. A true old salt.

Everyone praised Sultan Ibrahim who had calmed the frightened women and passengers, and praised the lascar crew as there had been much confusion in the darkness. 

The Argus was temporarily repaired on the reef enough to be floated off next day and got back to harbour, two tugs supporting her as she was taking tons of water, with her horses and humans all safe. First she got her horses safely off at the wharf, then headed for the slip. 

An enquiry found the fault was with the skipper of the Mildura, although very experienced it was one just of those things, an accident. The Mildura was holed above the water line and got back to port safely. Argus went into dry dock for extensive repairs. 

The Sultan, his aide de camp Captain Daud - a Malay married to a Melbourne girl who was with him - trainer George Redfearn, James Grant who was in charge of his horses for the trip, Gus Kennedy a groom and the horses and ponies all went on by other ships. The Sultan and Sultana with Captain Daud and Mrs Daud went on the steamer China to England while the others journeyed to Malaya with the horses. 




Argus.
State Library of Victoria.


The Sultan left a horse behind to run in the Melbourne Cup. He was full of praise for Flemington racecourse which he'd ridden around on a horse he bought - he even jumped the Cathedral - a frightening large jump there! A small matter of shipwreck at night held no fear for the Sultan of Johore.

In 1899 an Australian horse owned by the Sultan was champion race horse in Singapore - Culzean. That year he ordered two four-in-hand teams from Melbourne Horse Market (Kirks Bazaar), which were sent over.

The Sultan employed several Australians. G.A. Greaves was training for him in 1912. He gave jockey Jack Duval some top rides, guiding this good Australian jockey (and horse trader!) to success in Singapore - Jack later became a trainer there. Several jockeys, trainers and horse traders enjoyed his patronage. The Sultan also made gifts of exotic animals such as panthers and tigers, to Australian zoos.

He studied veterinary science, although not qualified he was said to be the best vet in Malaya and operated on his horses when neccessary. He was a great polo player. 

While a young Prince, his father forbad him to ride in races so he ran away to Cairo, Egypt, taking two Australian galloways with him - with which he beat the Arab horses in races, and sold for 20 times what he'd paid for them. He then went home and was sent for education to England, where he fell in love with hunting. When he got home again, he took up racing and polo.

A top rider, he rode in races himself including over jumps and once had a bad wreck in a jumps race, smashing his leg.  He was also a noted whip (carriage driver), a nonpareil.

In 1912 he bought a hackney here for 100 guineas, through his agent John Phillips.

In 1928 Jack Duval went over with some horses and ponies, he took 2 for the Sultan, one was very special, being 'a hackney' the Duke of York had ridden on his visit to Australia in 1927. This Duke of York was Prince Bertie, who became King George VI. 

In 1933 the Sultan bought more racehorses, 6 polo ponies and 24 hacks per Nieuw Holland in February.


Sultan of Johore in uniform in the 1930's. 
He was an impressive 6 feet 6 inches tall.
The Sultan started his own army, the Johore Military Force, S.E. Asia's only private army. 
A British colony, Malaya was with the Allies in WW2 but when the Japanese over-ran the country, the Sultan was able to call on an old friendshp with an influential Japanese officer to make the occupation less dangerous for his country - for a time at least.
This horse looks a Waler, polo pony/charger type.
Photo source - on several sites, origionally a postcard.


The Sultan did a lot to create forestry reserves in Malaya in an attempt to stop never ending British destruction. An old family friend was a Japanese descended from Shoguns, when WW2 came and they invaded Malaya and drove the Allies out, the Sultan welcomed his old friend. Malaya was occupied by the Japanese but by the end of the war the relationship was extremely strained - they were simply a change in colonials and even worse occupiers than the British, massacres, countless abuses happened. After the war the British returned. There began a solid struggle for independence, various treaties, battles, hard times. The Sultan spent a lot of time in Britain, using diplomacy for good terms for his country. Mixed feelings arose over him being an Anglophile, he indeed ended up living there. He died in Britain in 1959, his body taken home for burial. At last, in 1963, the people had success - Malaysia was officially free. 

The Sultan had had several marriages (one at a time!) and a fascinating lifestyle, he was not perfect but who is. He was exceedingly hospitable to ordinary Australian soldiers there in WW2 before the Japanese invaded. We remember the Sultan fondly and with great respect for his love of horses, great horsemanship, providing work for many Australians and good homes for so many of our horses and for being a wonderful man.

The Sultan of Perak, Sultan Iskander, another extremely wealthy man, also had to placate the British overlords with vast gifts of money or goods (he bought England a 2 million pound battleship for example). He was a great horseman.

He raced Australian horses, galloways and ponies, employed many Australian jockeys and trainers and played polo on Australian horses - a top player. He was educated at Oxford. The Sultan was extremely hospitable to visiting Australians and the British officers stationed in Perak and loved nothing better than to thrash them on the polo field. Proud of his Malay heritage, he wore traditional garb often. He served excellent wines to guests, but as a Muslim his conscience got to him at some stage while young, and he abstained from then on.

C. Whalan from Newcastle was one jockey he employed, he won the 1929 Taiping Plate for the Sultan, on Caliph. The Sultan also kept stables in Singapore where Phil Logue trained 40 to 50 ponies and horses for him, another Newcastle jockey Olly Davies had great success riding for the Sultan. He and the other jockeys loved the lifestyle there, and earned enough to come home to Australia for holidays. Ex-Newcastle jockeys C. Mayo and C. Minto also had great luck riding for His Highness, Mayo won the Penang Gold Cup in 1925.

In 1928 polo ponies for the Sultan and his brother received high praise, a grey, cream and chestnut being said to be the best they'd ever ridden, the cream the best polo pony in Malaya. They came from Tipperary Station and were sent over by Dr. Ebden. 

All who worked for him reported on the country as gloriously beautiful, a great place to live, work and play, and loved their work and conditions. The Sultan of Perak was a wonderful customer for Australian race ponies, galloways, hacks, polo ponies and horses.




Singapore... enough for a book too; countless horses and ponies. Ships took a few most trips there, weekly at least. will start and add a few...three ships might leave at once full of horses and ponies 'for the East' - Singapore was invariably one stop. will only list as specified port... hardly worth listing as too many
1840's - 70's many from WA and SA
1870's - countless loads from WA.

1900 56 in August per Euryalus.
1903 80 sent over by George Kiss, 40 for Singapore Club, 300 on the Argus in May.
1908 T. Lalor went over with a load of horses for J. Nicholas in June.
1909 52 per Darius, March + 59 per Gracchus July.
1911 32 per Changsha + 15 per Gracchus, June.
1916 50 ponies on the Tasman, January.
1919 121 horses per Houtman Oct.
1920 3 per Houtman July + 56 per Houtman Oct.
1928 21 ponies from J.Duval on the Tasman. + 40 ponies one racehorse with Duval in March on the Tasman.
1935 two polo ponies on the Marell, top ponies, one died in the worst typhoon in memory on the Arafura Sea. 


Burma... mostly a griffin market - many sent - which were shipped to Rangoon, 14.1 and under (too hot for big horses to race) also a few polo ponies. Walers went there in WW2, also in the Third Anglo-Burmese War 1885-7 where all horses suffered in the tropical conditions but Australian horses reported to have stood it better than any others (Capt. Heyland who was there). The proximity to India, also a British possession, meant for special occasions e.g when the Viceroy visited in 1902, coach horses, Lancers, etc came in and they usually had Walers. 

Although a good lot of ponies sold there, they had their own ponies and nearby sources. The occupying British brought their horses in via Assam etc, having annexed the coast hence all ports of the area in the first Anglo-Burmese war. Some horses were sent direct for the mostly Indian forces there. Most of their horses were Australian but usually via India.

In 1900 57 went over on the Euryalus to Rangoon.

In 1905 George Kiss sent over 50 good horses to Rangoon,
1912 30 from George Kiss, 28 from Porole and 20 from Gillies all to Rangoon.
1907 9 horses on the Darius. 
1914 30 horses to Rangoon. 
In early 1915 a load of horses went over to Rangoon on the Echunga. Her skipper was Captain Bill Butcher, known for his fluent swearing, seamanship and playing operatic tunes on the concertina - he was the only skipper the government knew could get there in a war and get back, to take horses and bring rice back. Capt. Butcher did the mission safely. The horses were probably for Indian units there and/or the Military Police, as there was a Kachin uprising and the British were throwing a lot of units into this fight, several were mounted. Kachin uprising details.
In 1919 Harry Gabell said in an interview (Daily News, Perth) the racing was clean in Burma and the Straits Settlements (he and brother Hector had been training there in Rangoon and the Straits Settlements for 7 years) and that in Rangoon most racehorses were crosses of Burma ponies and Australian horses. Harry had just returned to Australia to train.
In 1933 and 1934 Major Duguid had a shipload of polo ponies (13.2 height) shipped both years to Rangoon, for hill station polo, the 1934 load going over on the Nieuw Zeeland, a Dutch East Indies trading steamer that ran regularly from Australia, usually taking a few horses to Java each trip too.

Gradually in the early 1930's the racing ponies breeding went over to English and Arab sires on government studs (the government made money by leasing out race ponies), and Australian ponies were used for griffin racing only. As the Australian pony population fell, so did the Australian, almost no Australians remained in the racing world there; once there were many.

By 1940 the trade had petered out, possibly as bookies were barred by then (totes used instead). An article on pony racing in Burma in 1940, interviewing Mr. L. Burnett of the Rangoon Turf Club, said all the ponies were Burmese, with a bit of French, English and Arab blood, and no Australian blood any more. There were height classes of 13.1 hh and 13.3hh, the highest class 14.1 for the races, at the time the world's richest pony races. Sires over 15.1 hands were not permitted registration. Burnett was visiting Melbourne to seek some racing ponies to take back to Burma.

Earlier, in 1924, Llew Jones who was chief stipendary steward for the Rangoon Turf Club, sent a letter about the club to Australian newspapers. A new course was almost finished, the prize money was generous, and classes were 12.2 hands, 13 hhh and 13.2 hh plus subscription waler races (griffins). Bookies were 'leviathons' running books such as no Australian had seen. Obviously gambling was a teensy bit popular and doubtlessly a problem. The Bishop of Rangoon refused a donation from the Turf Club in 1922, saying it was tainted money. Perhaps he was annoyed as in 1922 the Prince of Wales, Bertie, attended the pony races in Rangoon thus supporting racing. The Prince patted a pony named The Bride before one race. As Burmese are superstitious, they took this as a good sign and rushed to back her, bringing the odds from 30 to 1 into 10 to 1. She won. Her sire was a good race pony from Australia named Red Spec, that then raced in India, and then went to Burma. Her dam also named The Bride had won races at Colac (Australia). before going to Burma. The famous Rangoon Cup - for the 13.2 hands class - was won that year by Hygeia, a pony bred in Australia.

The Rangoon Turf Club did a lot of good too. They supported Daw Tee Tee (Mrs Luce), an amazing Burmese woman who started an orphanage in 1928 especially for street children - saving thousands of boys - the Turf Club funded construction of the main building. She'd studied children's welfare in England for a year. It was bombed in WW2 but the boys had been walked to India for safety. UNESCO listed this orphanage for help.

In WW2 several countries used horses there. The Indians and Chinese got their horses through the best (all Walers), the Indians were great fighters there. 





South Africa... Cape Horses (now the S.A. Boerperd) were vital to breeding horses in colonial Australia and developing the Waler - the first horses to set hoof in Australia were from the Cape, brought on the First Fleet in 1788.  Later we were able to send some horses back.  Some examples... 1895 shipload, included carriage horses. Joe Griffin sent some racehorses over in 1894 for an order and in 1895 he travelled back over with a couple of loads of Walers for Soames and Co. Wonder was Soames a collector of art and beautiful women too? (scusi, Galsworthy!). 

Soames, who described himself as 'an old Africander" had set up a company to bring horses and cattle over from Australia to improve quality. He had trouble finding a ship to take them as by then ships were going the other way, via the Suez, depite him offering a good shipping fee. He managed to get a good ship before too long. It took about 24 days steaming, then 3 days by train to get to Johannesburg (he lived in the Rand where he farmed rather than mined). He included a few racehorses saying it was very risky getting them, and lots of carriage horses, hacks and strong ponies. He looked forward to a good profit after polishing the horses up once home. 

1897 140 horses including one Thoroughbred stallion and one Suffolk Punch stallion, also that year people from Transvaal bid at the Toowoomba horse sales and Tattersalls Horse Bazaar buying Darling Downs remounts and gun horses. Another 120 in 1897 went over from Sydney on a German-Australian line steamer. 
1899 the Kendal Castle took over 51 horses, cattle and sheep; a bad storm washed all the sheep off in deck stalls but the horses and cattle were ok. 
Late 1902 8 for F. Hamilton went over to Durban. 
November 1902 per Ripley 300 horses for mounted constabulary, steeplechaser Crusado for a hunter, 14 stallions for Imperial govt to go to J'burg via Durban, all sent by Kerouse & Madden.
1903 buyer selecting 'heavy ponies' for South Africa. Also in 1903 Kerouse and Madden sent over 430 remounts and nine racing ponies. Also on the steamer (Gracchus) Sol Green, a bookie, sent racehorses, racing ponies and trotters. Also in 1903 on the Sussex 6 horses, 2 ponies and 1 blood stallion went to Durban and Cape Town. 
In 1904 250 horses from Queensland went over for the Reid Brothers, then another 231 Qld horses including roadsters and ponies of top quality (one pony 'Commodore' was a champion). 
1905, 500 horses for the constabulary were ordered, sent over in March 1906.
1911 3 horses to Capetown per Bechuana, April.
1921 52 horses per Delgardo Bay sent by Powell Bros.
1934 roughrider Jack Dempsey went over with 11 'outlaws' for a buckjumping display, one named King of the Ranges; due to quarantine he left them behind when he travelled back. Probably more went over at times, will add as found. That's not counting racehorses, quite a lot of those went over, from 1902 when the war finished, to much later e.g. a ship load in 1936.

With the horses sent to the Boer War of 1899-1902, we sent horses for the South African Constabulary. This was a unit raised to patrol British occupied territories and put under the guidance of Baden-Powell. He sent for men from Britain, Canada and Australia. They bought mostly Australian horses. William Nicholas Willis - a colourful character and at the time an M.L.C. (elected to upper house of govt) - had a contract to supply unlimited numbers of horses for this outfit. Kitchener soon intervened and turned the constabulary into a para-military force, making them unpopular. Many of the men, good fine fellows, subsequently died in conflict. Willis sent several shipments of horses over, he always chose the best, praised in the press. He was careful with shippers and they were invariably described as 'in splendid condition' on arrival. Veterinary Captain Taylor and Colonel Holdsworth inspected the many of the horses before shipping during the war. This trade went on after the war (the force went from 1901-1908). For an unknown reason Willis was an avid supporter of the Boer War and raised the first troops to go there from Australia, and greatly stirred up empirical feeling. Finally he moved there himself after Australia got too hot for him after suspicious business dealings. One shipload he sent in 1902 was 607 horses. Argus took a load of 550 over for him in May 1902, etc. Some of the Surrey's big load also went for the constabulary (which was in Transvaal and Orange Free State). He sent horses over until 1906. All up roughly 4,000 horses. He got them from Qld and N.S.W. Kitchener asked for small nuggety horses. Willis accordingly sought cobs, although he mostly sent remount types, slightly bigger.

A sound trade. One needs to bear in mind hundreds of thousands of horses went there in the Boer War (Second Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902), those not killed by misuse and war were left behind. A few Australians also chose to stay there. Like all wars, very little news of atrocities made through news propaganda back home, but experiences there of seeing war crimes by British forces meant volunteers for WW1 were reluctant, hence conscription was considered by parlt. Also, the only person who would send horses over for the constabulary after the war was Willis despite wide appeals in the papers. No-one else wanted that trade but were happy to supply private people.Willis gave the impression he had an Australian government contract to supply horses but he was merely using his position to sell to government forces in S.A., and wrongfully used government telegram services to arrange his sales - other horse buyers said no-one could compete with this, as telegrams were so expensive.

Can't find us sending horses directly to the First Anglo-Boer War of December 1880 to March 1881; probably too brief a conflict for such logisitics to swing into action but British forces had mounted troops such as the Hussars there who possibly had Walers taken from India.

In the Zululand wars 800 artillery and cavalry were sent for in 1879, from Madras straight down to South Africa, they were well trained and sent for in a hurry. Quite a few horses went from India to this war, probably many were Australian as Madras was a frequent destination for horse ships.






Egypt... Apart from WW1 and our troops which are amply covered by others (we sent thousands there in WW1), we sent horses there at other times. Good trade, largely to the British there as it was British colony at that stage. In 1882- 1885 many shiploads went over and they got glowing reports, said to be the best horses the men had ever had. Artillery horses were sent for urgently in 1885, some to go to Sudan too. Sudan bordered Egypt and the war to get rid of colonials and replace the Khedive (ruler), possibly a colonial puppet,  went on in both places for a long while (called wars of the Dervishes). In 1882 it was reported that 50 tons of horse fodder was sent from Bombay fortnightly for the army horses. 

A few other loads. In 1923 for example, J.S. Love sent 712 horses to Egypt on the Hymettus, Colonel Loch and Gamble of the Imperial Forces had come over to choose them. Colonel Loch had been in India and was a great fan of Walers. 

After WW1, 7,000 of our horses were set from France to Egypt for British forces. A further 6,400 were bought from the Australian government by the British govt. at 35 pounds a head (a good price) in late 1919 - these were already in Egypt after the Armistice because our boys had had them there for WW1. Much loved mounts that had been through a long hard war. An uprising in 1919 saved a lot being killed as mounted troops were suddenly needed; the continued British presence meant they were no longer redundant. So a lot ended up there one way or the other. It's possible they may have had a little impact on local equine genes, as many were mares. Some were sold to locals after use.




Sudan... heaps sent, although for British and Indian troops and the Sudanese who joined the cavalry; not as direct sales. Some went direct, most via India and Egypt. Horses were sent over from India from early 1880's until 1920 for the Dervish wars. Majority were Australian. 

Sudan itself has an ancient horse culture and breeds. These days they have a healthy population of their own breeds - great horses. The Dongola horse which went into so many British and European breeds was from Sudan, Eritrea and Cameroon; in the Darfur area of Sudan their descendants live on. 

There's a chance a little Waler blood has gone into the horses. Sudanese were top cavalrymen and knew a good horse. Their riding always gained high praise, whether riding with or against us. Many Walers went there and many stayed.



New Guinea... apart from WW1 and WW2, horses were sent there commercially at other times. A small trade but sound. The German steamer Prinz Waldemar took 40 odd horses there in 1908 (and a few to Manilla on the same voyage). The western part of New Guinea was a Dutch colony so they bought horses from us, as did the Germans who had German New Guinea also called Kaiser Wilhelm Land, 1884-1914, with neighbouring islands. They'd been there longer but those are the oficial dates. The Germans there bought quite a few horses from us. In 1906 several families of German extraction went over to German New Guinea from Cairns to settle, they took horses among their livestock. Sadly when Australia annexed the territory as WW1 broke out, our army took all the horses from these families. It upset the women the most apparently. In 1922 the Morinda too a load of horses over. Horses went over for plantation work at times, such as a load on the Lautoka in 1953.

Australia took the German territories at the beginning of WW1 and it became Papua New Guinea, finally gaining independence in 1975.



Hawaii... small trade in horses for us. 
A horsey place where travellers from Australia reported a lot of people rode and women too, astride (1857 ) with special flowing riding habits that covered their feet when mounted; and the 'abundant' horses were good types. An 1844 shipping report also mentioned the abundant horses and bustling port. A traveller in 1870 also mentioned the women riders and that Mexican saddles were universally used (i.e. all made with a horn for roping), another in 1871 said vast numbers of semi wild horses roamed freely on the mountain slopes. 

In 1849 Captain Jackson of the American ship Inez, reported in a Sandwich Island newspaper that he'd turned down 4 thousand dollars for his two Australian horses bought in Sydney for 20 pounds. Another 1849 report said in California the numerous horses were mostly Mexican, and not tall; and Mexicans there were experts with wild horses and lasso-ing, and all horse gear (saddles, large rowelled spurs with chains and bells, bridles, bits etc) were Mexican and horses were very cheap, about 8 dollars for a good mare. One can see these would have gone on ships to Hawaii, or direct from Mexico.

An article in a San Francisco newspaper was reprinted in the Sydney Stock & Station Journal in January 1913, by J. Monserratt. It reported the first known stallion on Hawaii was a chestnut stallion named Oregan from the NA state of that name, imported 1854-48, by Diamon - his progeny could run and also made good cattle horses. In 1852-54 a stallion named Admiral or the Thompson Horse (imported by a Mr Sam Thompson) and thought to be an Arabian, came in from Australia (probably origionally from India, thence Arabia). He was bay and his progeny 'tough as a hickory nut' and stayers. In 1854 a black Australian named Laurel came in, later sent to Guam (gender not given).   Mentions a horse brought in from Chile and one from California supposed to be a Morgan. In 1869 a red roan stallion from Australia named Wonder

In 1928 an Australian polo team (Capt. Pearson, Curtis Skene, F. Beveridge etc) went to Honolulu for a month to play, with 39 ponies, all of which were for sale. The next stop was the US. Ten ponies had been sold ahead before they left. Some were sold on Oahu. In 1929 13 expensive polo ponies went over to the capital city/port, Honolulu, which is on the island of Oahu. 

Trading ships came to and fro Honolulu regularly, it was a regular trading stop-over on the 'frisco run from Australia - horses were usually taken in small numbers as speculations or for private orders. They were not bought as remounts. Have not found any horses coming this way from Hawaii thus far. Our quarantine would have prevented horses coming from there. 

A report in an April 1914 Sydney Stock & Station journal said the horses on Hawaii were perfect cavalry horses, being strong and nuggety, but the army refused them as they were an inch too short. A knowledgeable cavalryman who wrote the article was furious, saying these were bred from American and Australian horses and the army would not find better, especially for a tropical climate; condemning weeds his army was buying instead (sounds familiar, articles like this are not uncommon with horse breeding countries!). We sent a few racehorses there. Polo was popular.

After the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbour there, over a million North American soldiers were sent to Australia for WW2. Colonel Robenson, a cavalryman, said all he knew about Australia was horses (hence we loved him madly), "I had a little Australian mare in the Philippines in 1914-15," said Col. Robenson. "She was the handiest and best little polo pony I ever rode, and the fastest thing on the island." He knew about Phar Lap and Carbine and about another Australian horse that won the 1904 Grand National. These horses were far more loved in Australia than any human - Carbine was seen off by a sobbing crowd of thousands when he left for the UK. Everyone had a picture of Phar Lap on the wall, with a black armband painted on his jockey Jim Pike as Phar Lap's death sent the whole country into terrible mourning (he died in the US). It must be said all these 'Australian' horses were bred in NZ! ... they had their careers here, and were taken to our hearts, Phar Lap brightened up the Depression. It's hard to explain to outsiders what the horse meant to Australia in those days. Horses were our heroes. But I digress... (oops).

Colonel Robenson was also amazed at the welcome given to his troops in Brisbane and Darwin. source, News (Adelaide) April 1942. Little did we know. It was a terrible time for us.

Horses were also needed in Hawaii for cattle farmers. All travellers reported riding was a delightful way to see the beautiful countryside, with riding trails all over the place. Hawaii is a group of eight (seven inhabited) main islands, the biggest called Hawaii; they've had excellent horses on the islands for a long time and a great horse culture.
Hawaii lost its independence in 1959.




England... we didn't send many horses there directly, it wasn't feasible. It was a voyage of several months, hard on animals and costly. They also arrived as winter struck and were growing summer coats. 

In 1896 it was estimated England imported about 40,000 horses annually, not enough. Supply didn't meet demand. As the army, needs like hackney cabs which in London alone used well over 10,000 horses, plus omnibuses, livery, deliveries etc. England mostly got horses from Canada and its neighbour, a quicker trip. Walers went to England from India, Africa and Asia with troops and officers returning home from active duty, rather than directly. A surprising number ended up there. 

Usually troops were sent unmounted to India to be mounted there. Also sent home unmounted, their mounts re-issued to fresh troops. Some must have returned to England with troops as there would appear to have been a lot of Australian horses with troops in England too. 

An old dragoon (interview in The Horse magazine) said the best horses his regiment ever had in England were Australian Walers. They must have gone via India, some travelling back with troops. For example in 1899 Major Thompson of the 5th Dragoon Guards bought 688 Walers for remounts and said they were splendid, but that he had to go 4,000 miles to get them (India to Australia). I was sent a lovely photo of a person's grandad with two solid Walers in England in the forces of WW1, years ago. Several people said the Waler created the real hunt horse again, as horses had got too light after the racing mad Charles Stuarts and while Arabs were the rage. 

The Bathurst Post 15th November 1893. "The 5th Dragoon Guards, which left England recently for India for the first time in the history of the regiment, will on arrival be mounted on Australian horses. They will take over the 200 left by the 7th Dragoon Guards,100 from the 19th Hussars, 75 from the 18th Hussars, 75 from the 11th Hussars and 75 untrained remounts from the Remount Depot. The 11th and 18th Hussars will receive countrybreds, and the 19th Hussars, Arab or Persian remounts, in lieu of those given over." 

In 1887 an article praising their Australian mounts for endurance (Bangalore to Mysore 180 miles in 51 hours, in very oppressive conditions) was published in several newspapers. Officer was Lt. Broad. Lancers and dragoon horses.

In 1888 six weight carrying hunters and carriage horses were shipped over on the Riverina. They arrived in splendid condition but prices against costs made the venture unprofitable.

Several racehorse were shipped over most years. In 1895 a trial load of strapping young hunter and carriage horses by TB sires and one Arab sire out of good solid mares, and some draughts, were sent over on the Celtic King and Maori King from Sydney. Although they were praised, prices were poor and costs too high for another experiment. Four were bought by the cavalry, an officer sternly saying in an interview we must in future send well trained horses, not wild ones, and that the price would be the same (it was low); and that he'd ridden Walers for years in India and they were the best. 

Another drawback was that insurance declined to cover horses for the long trip to England.

Also in 1895 eight Clydesdales went over on the Southern Cross to London, they did not get good prices; and the same year on the Gulf of Lyons (sic Lions) 108 polo ponies, draughts and hacks (at least one being a jumper, winner of several races) went over for the Pastoral Finance Company and Anglo-Australian Horse Export Assoc. of Sydney; 45 (some reports say 54) died during bad storms en route. The remainder sold at Aldridge's Repository, again prices were disasterously low. This type of venture proved it was neither feasible nor humane to send horses all that way. Professor Galvani was in charge of the horses, hoping to create an export market. It was noted the season they arrived was wrong (our summer, their winter) and that in April-May (our autumn their spring) coach horses would be in demand.
In the same year, 1895, 18 top quality draughts were sent over on the Gulf of Siam. Eleven died on the way.

"Questioned on the subject of remounts for the army, our guide informed us that in his opinion no horses came up to the 'waler' which, in army parlance, is an Australian - bred horse originally, of course, New South Wales." Chronical (Adelaide) January 1900; report of a tour of Aldershot, the army training camp for horsed units, Hampshire.

It was to India, under British control, we sent the most horses and it was practical.  Indians needless to say made up the majority of regiments. Several shipments went directly to England from Australia but there was nothing in it financially, and the horses didn't like it. In 1897 Mr Dangar
(the Suffolk Punch breeder) sent 6 good horses over for use with our mounted rifles in England, also en route there; the horses to be sold there after finished with. He bought the horses, being well known horses and weight carrying cavalry types, three from the Liverpool Plains. 32 horses altogether went over with these men to compete (1896-7) in a military tournament, all sold there after. Probably more will update at some stage.

About 250,000 horses passed through the Lathom Park Remount Depot in England alone, mostly English, Canadian and North American animals, during WW1. The horse ships were prey for German ships in the Atlantic.

Ships such as the Lothringen, seized at the beginning of the war here as prizes, were fitted out to carry horses and sent from Australia to India with horses; thence to carry horses from India to England throughout the war; many of these horses from India would have been Walers.

In September 1914 it was reported 7,000 horses were being shipped to England for the Expeditionary Forces from the Liverpool Remount Depot (Australia). These horses were for our own men. Steamers were specially set up, and on arrival the horses got a month to recover. Other reports said 7,000 of our horses were going directly to France.  In 1917 a report was sent to the Minister for Defense in Australia, Senator Pearce, greatly praising Australian remounts. On inspection of Yeomanry in England the report said '...all the Imperial officers of high standing are mounted on Australian horses." and much more music to the ears. Most of the Yeomanry were usually on Australian horses so obviously we did send army horses there for English troops for WW1, something others who do military matters may have covered. In 1919 53 Australian horses were sold at Salisbury and got an outstanding 53 pounds and 6 shillings each.

Britain is an ancient horse culture and where we got our best horses from to create the Waler. It was a tribute to Walers to mount their regiments and horse their artillery, right at the end of the horse era. Colonisation however, is always wrong and always brutal. In studying this trade, it's been disturbing. Constantly finding atrocities where one least expects, and having to edit out shocked bits of blog (apologies).



Aden... Always an extremely busy port, horses were taken to the colony of Aden en route to Sudan at times, and supplied to the British army there, and sold to private people. Britain had held it since 1839 as a Province of British India. Water problems and little natural feed meant horses were not kept in large numbers. Aden and Little Aden are like small peninsulas either side of a large open bay.

 In 1911 a pair of greys (white), lightly built, were selected by H.W. Wallder who normally only traded horses within Australia, they were bought in Victoria for the King of England's carriage - Wallder broke them in then sent them to Bombay and from there to Aden on the s.s. Umta. The King was at Aden on a visit and the horses did him proud. British troops were stationed there so horses would have come from India, probably mostly Australian, and on ships bound for Africa. 

Of interest an officer of the Nizam of Hyderabad, who came to Australia in 1939 looking at horses - his troops were mounted on 2,400 Australian horses and they got an average of 250 annually - was born near Aden, Brigadier Byad El-Edroos. Like his father he served the Nizam. 

Polo was popular there. 

Aden was a British colony as part of the India possession. It achieved full independence in 1963 but struggled along with ongoing UK brutality especially from the 'slithering snakes' - the despicable special forces; until it became South Yemen then part of Yemen. Oil money always went to the empires and kept Yemen poor. A vitally important strategic port then (and now) and coaling station (re-fuelling for ships en route to India etc). The majority of the population were Muslims but Sharia law was not used, normal courts of law instead. Now part of Yemen, and sadly Saudi Arabia is committing atrocities there. It's likely horses would have a dash of Waler in their genes from long term British occupation. In the book An Account of the British Settlement in Aden, Arabia by Captain Hunter, published 1877, he says horses were obtained from Somalia (good ponies), Egypt, and Cape horses were brought in, and light fiery horses from Arab sources although there were few breeders nearby so officers brought horses in from India. One would presume these were increasingly Walers as the trade kicked in. However we seem to have sent few there directly. One can imagine that through the ages this would have been a great horse port, for staging animals to and fro Arab countries and Africa, India, Indonesia etc. The Portugese, on excellent terms with Arab horse breeders, were active in this trade.



France and Belgium... we didn't export horses there, but sent loads during WW1 for our troops and many of the British and Indian troops had Australian horses - so in the WW1 era France and Belgium got Walers too. The Australian government brought no horses home after war. Thankfully, some got homes. In 1919 in France the Australian Surplus Board auctioned 6,753 good Australian horses and got an average of 35 pounds each - excellent money. A further 1,543 horses of lesser quality went for slaughter prices of 17 pounds each, and the top lot of 1,400 horses sold to the Belgium government at the super price of 55 pounds each. A further 7,000 Australian horses from France were taken to Egypt for British forces after WW1. 
In 1947 France asked us for 2,000 all purpose horses. They bought at least 5,000 from Canada that year also. In October 1948 they declared all 16,000 cavalry horses for sale - the French army was being fully mechanised.





Vietnam... The French who had Vietnam (French Indo-China) came here with Annamese soldiers in January 1907 and bought horses. The papers admired the 43 Annamese who were fit and strong, dressed in eye-catching uniforms, and who most capably tried the horses out before purchase. Captain Sipiere was supervising purchases. They were very fussy, and only chose the best, mostly strong ponies. Their criteria was 13.2 to 15 hands. They paid top prices which was appreciated. They only bought mares, the Captain saying that after their army career they would go to stud for cavalry horses. 

As we had a good market to Siam which was often at war with Annam (in Siam blog), this restricted sales to the French for obvious reasons, at times. Nonetheless, Saigon was much visited by those travelling on the Grand Tour (of Asia) including horse traders - it was a regular port of call. As a few horse and ponies went on almost every ship, and found their way into private hands there. 

Vietnam was also known as Annam, Tonquin and Cochin China. 
photo from Wiki entry on Tonkin

Reports by travellers of seeing carriages pulled by smart Australian horses.  

Anyway for this army order it was good to trade at peace and they were great to deal with. The steamer Wimbleton took 250 horses (mostly big strong ponies) over for them, some going to Saigon and the rest to Hai Phong.

The northern area of Vietnam was called Tonkin/Tonquin/TongKing, it had the capital of Hanoi. The central part was Annam and the southern part of Vietnam was known as Cochin China, with the capital of Saigon. 

There were various travellers reports, one in 1882 said it would be a good market for horses from Darwin and that French steamers ran from Marseilles via Reunion, Port Louis, then via French Indo China - thence across to New Caledonia, and that they were calling at Perth, Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney too.  And return. One can see in this way Australian horses may have been taken to their colonies depending on the route (French Indo China and/or New Caledonia) by French steamers; their cargo was almost never fully reported in the news.

The people of Vietnam were good horseman as there were ponies in the area, for millenia. In colonial days some people went to France to the cavalry schools.

Of interest, in 1859 the Spanish sent men, mostly native troops (Filipinos) and horses from Manila (Philippines) to Cochin China to help the French fight an uprising, the Spanish troops were praised for their courage and honour in newspapers here, not committing atrocities. As we'd sent horses to the Spanish in Manila by then, it's possible some of the horses they took to Vietnam were Australian or bred from Australian horses.

In 1939 James Morrow of Wagga, took a shipload of racehorses to Saigon. (no doubt others went will add as found). Saigon was a frequent stop for ships en route to Hong Kong etc, passengers enjoying a break there. 

On the whole a small market directly, but as the French helped the English in China at times with uprisings such as the Taiping Rebellion - despite their animosity elsewhere! - they bought some Australian horses there; and from Hong Kong, the Dutch East Indies, Shanghai etc which were close, and on the trade routes. The French attended the great horse sales in Shanghai, a lot of Australian horses were sold there. 

Vietnam gained independence after WW2, on September 2, 1945, a day annually celebrated - but the French let them have no peace - fighting them until 1954 when they handed the war over to North America (and Australia); next Cambodia (Pol Pot) and China took a turn kicking them. The country itself was divided. But they never gave up. Finally, they got peace.



Philippines...We sold to the Spanish in the Philippines, e.g. 25 horses went there in 1844 on the Trinidad, in 1877 shiploads went over from Fremantle. Spanish officers came here in 1896 buying horses, many were sent from NSW and Victoria; in January 1897 they were back, buying artillery horses. Horses went on trading ships in small numbers but regularly, Spanish ships traded here with sugar and bought coal etc and Manila was a regular calling port for our trading ships. Manila cigars were popular. 



Spanish cavalry, Escuadron de Lanceros Expedicionario. circa 1987
Many of the horses would have been Australian. Due to a deliberate  blockade by North Americans in 1898 causing famine, people were forced to eat the horses.
 photo source

From early settlement Australia had a good regular trade to and from the Philippines, we bought Manila ponies in our early days, good strong ponies. Pony racing was traditional there, held in spring it was a huge event enjoyed by everyone and travellers went over for it. The Manila Jockey Club started in 1880. There was a strong social club culture in Manilla. Spanish, British, Germans, French moved there as traders and settlers; all bought horses.

There had been a horse culture on the islands for a long time, the local types being pony sized.

The Spanish and others there were good to trade with. Spain had the Philippines until 1898 when the people took it back in a successful rebellion - but as this happened it was invaded. The North American invaders then paid $20 million to 'buy' it from the Spanish. Filipinos bravely fought them for a further 6 years or so. The occupiers became customers in the Philippines buying horses from 1898 until the occupation was over, late 1945. Lethal diseases such as cholera, typhoid, dysentry raged there during the terrible time of invasion and horse traders whose ships called there returning from India had personal possessions 'confiscated' in port by officials... it became avoided. It is well known how terrible the invasion was. All the major horse dealers ceased trading there from 1902. They got most of their army horses from their own country anyway, which also had a big horse trade. 

A few Australian entrepreneurs sold to them in a sporadic trade, mostly for polo, hacks, a few for the army, a few race ponies, racehorses, a few griffins. There had been sales for tram horses until the system went electric in 1905. About 20,000 horses went over from 1898 to 1902, many from Port Darwin, some from Wyndham WA, the rest from Qld and NSW - one order was 7,000 ponies for the constabulary, this order was filled in Qld as they could not afford NSW prices, having gone there first. Horses were sold to them including their army, but at abysmally low prices. They could not afford market prices for horses and ponies. An unviable trade. Private buyers there paid market prices, however. The trade trickled on, slowly sinking and taking a major dive from 1908, to a little spike when Kidman sold them 1,200 odd army horses from SA in 1913.

The port our horses went to was Manila. Australian Donald McInnes had a Horse Bazaar in Manila and lived there for a time, he went there about 1902. He left in 1909 but sent horses over for several more years from Townsville, at times going over with them; bio further down page.

In 1952 (after independence) at least 1,000 horses went over to the Philippines for the Filipino army who were fighting communists, a civil war. Lt-Colonel Jacobo Zobel, a noted polo player, and some officers came over to select the army horses, they travelled over by Philippines Navy ship L.S.T. 875. Horses sold to the Philippines after independence for polo, racing and hacks.



Guam... Hundreds of thousands of horses went over! e.g...

1846 - 3 per Sarah Scott1856 - the William IV took 2 horses.
1864 - 1 horse on the brig Gazelle.
1879 - load on the Amur.
1881 - 67 on the Iris
1914 - 256 on the Hymettus in Oct + many other loads...
etc
etc

But! ... did these horses really go to Guam?! 

 "Clearing out for Guam" was an Australian saying, it meant "going nowhere in particular." An undisclosed destination. 

A destination port had to be given by ships leaving Australia - those who wanted their destination private gave Guam. All big Australian ports had several ships leaving for Guam - daily - from 1840 - the port most given as destination. Very few, if any, were going there.

 an amusing article on Guam from the 1856 Melbourne Punch.

We did sell a few horses there, but it's hard to know exactly how many. 
Horse traders in W.A. such as Avery liked the subterfuge of listing Guam as a destination - not wishing others to know where their lucrative horse markets were. It transpired Daniel Avery's horse ships usually went to Mauritius. 

Spanish soldiers captured the notorious blackbirder Bully Hayes on Guam when he called there in 1875, making the Pacific safer. The first horse went onto Guam in 1673 from a galleon, a Spanish horse. It was the only horse there for a while and everyone loved it madly. source. The Spanish brought more horses in and Guam became a horsey place. A Spanish colony for 400 years then taken by North America in 1898. Occupied by the Japanese briefly in WW2 then NA again. The North Americans brought horses in from the Philippines. Some of these may have been Australian as they bought about 20,000 from us 1898-1902 there and some annually until they left after WW2. NA uses Guam as a massive military base, they put these in other people's countries, Australia too. They also put toxic nuclear dumps on Guam, tested nuclear bombs nearby causing radiation illnesses that are ongoing and plan to use Pagan and Tinian Islands there  - both populated - for target practice, in 2016, despite the indigenous Chamorro people of Guam, and Pagan, Tinian and other Pacific Islanders begging them not to. In WW2 North America took an official 10,000 horses from us free "Lendlease" but the real figure is more like 20,000 horses. All these suffered terribly and died. They took over 2,000 of our horses to New Caledonia, most were dispersed to Burma, China and India (all to die of abuse in their hands) but a few went to Hawaii, Guadacanal and Guam; on Guam they were eaten. Guam remains a North American possession.  article.


North America... To North America we sent a few horses and got some from them in early days, until quarantine halted imports from there. In 1802 we imported a horse from North America named Washington, presumed a Thoroughbred. A Suffolk Punch named Young Champion went over to San Francisco from Tasmania in 1850.

Senator George Hearst of California bought a few from us in 1887 and 1888. It cost a lot to send a horse over there - 50 pounds in the 1840's, more than a horse was worth then - so not many went, and it was a long trip for the horses. As there was a regular run from Australia to San Franscisco, a few went over at times, they could be given a break at Hawaii or left there for a good spell to be transhipped later (sent on by another ship).

Ship the Almeda had a regular run there, she took a few valuable horses over in 1887, 1888, 1890, 1891, 1893 and 1899. In 1890 she left some mares in NZ to be bred to top stallions there such as Nordenfeldt, bred for American time, and to be shipped on once in foal. 

They didn't need to buy army horses from us as they bred their own and also had a big export trade. 

In the twentieth century racehorses and polo horses went over, Due to quarantine those who took polo horses there to compete couldn't bring them home, so sold them there. We got a few trotters from there (Standardbreds) in the nineteenth century. When quarantine improved by the mid twentieth century more horses went both ways but it was past the era of the army and utility horse.



Turkey... Walers went there in WW1 and WW2, some stayed; other than that in 1947 they ordered 1,000 general purpose horses... possibly a few more went there, will add when found



Fiji... Small but sound trade. Often spelled Feejee in early news, and the port of Lautoka was spelled Lavtoka. Good ports, although Horseshoe Reef became a ship's graveyard.
Photo: riding in Fiji... source 

Here's a quick look through archives, would be heaps more. 

1870 brig Prince of Wales took 15 horses from Sydney, 4 died en route when bad weather carried her into the trades. Steamer Eagle took horses over (no numbers, 5 also died en route).
1871 horses per brig Carl - notes re this notorious trip in the ship list (further down page).
1881 horses on the schooner Opotiki went over from Sydney. 1889 28 draughts and one black Clydesdale stallion per Birksgate.
1891 the Waroonga took 70 horses over on one trip, + she took 107 on another trip the same year + she took 42 in April being 30 draughts and 2 stallions.
1894 6 horses per Arawa + 2 per Rotokino.
1896 69 horses per Taviuni.
1897 40 per Percy Edwards + some on the May + 8 per Birksgate + 40 per Ovalan landed 'in faultless condition.'
1898 load per Hauroto, reported arrived 'in perfect order.' + 30 per Ovalu condition also praised on arrival.
1899  38 horses per Manapouri.
1900 9 horses per Birksgate + 3 per Mambare.
1901 2 horses + 8 on the Manapouri.
1903 8 horses per Rotokina, March. 
1904 some horses taken over on the Boveric + 3 polo ponies for Dr Hall from H. Fisher went over per Illaru.
1905 a dozen plantation horses and one hack + 31 in another load + 120 per Pilbarra, June, landed at Labassa. The Pilbarra broke down en route and was found by the Induna, the Warrego then towed her in, all livestock arrived in good condition (sheep also aboard).
1906 23 horses per Navus, June.
1909 7 horses per Warwick Edward, December. 
1910 3 horses + 40 draughts on the ship Levuka to Suva.
1911, 80 draughts for Suva in two shipments of 40 per Levuka, August.
1914 shipload horses from the Hawkesbury, bred from Shire, Clydesdale and roadster plus a Clydesdale colt. 

Report in 1877 saying horses much in demand and getting good prices. Quarantine laws stopped us buying horses back until 1924.

Some Australians moved there. Tragically, some brought the first slaves there (also called indentured labour/forced labour) in 1864 53 men from the New Hebrides (Vanuatu) were loaded onto the Van Tromp, and put on John Campbell's plantation. Fiji people resisted becoming slaves until slavers forced them by trickery or at gunpoint. Fortunately British war ships patrolled to catch slavers, and got a surprising lot. 


A beautiful place often visited by Australians, Fiji has horses roaming about freely and offers riding for holidaymakers. Heaven.




New Caledonia... Our charming French speaking neighbours. The nearby islands are the Loyalty Islands. We had regular trade to and from New Caledonia - despite traditional French-British enmity we were a long way from the colonial masters and on good friendly terms. Australians went there for work, many stayed permanently; the French came here for holidays. 

British and French both went New Caledonia, finally France claimed it in 1853 despite it being inhabited by indigenous people. Horses were needed so the colonists sent to Australia. Indigenous people quickly took to horses too. 

In the 1840's and 50's the trade was brisk to and from Sydney, it took longer for the Melbourne trade to kick in. Passengers went to and fro. French mail and supply ships came here for decades, and war sloops and frigates. All reports by travellers to New Caledonia praised it to the skies. 

Horses went over in varying numbers with other cargo including livestock. Reports said all horses there were Australian, and there were a lot, native people found them useful too. In 1859 the frigate Thisbe took horses from Sydney over to Port de France (Noumea), a new wharf was being built there and a road to unite that port with St Vincent. Later that year the captain of the Brilliant reported cattle, sheep and horses imported to New Caledonia from Sydney were thriving.




This wild horse on New Caledonia looks like a Waler!

Mounted police (gendarmes) needed horses too, they had 20 mounted police on NC as early as 1846 - probably the year horses first arrived on the island. French man-o-war ships kept pirates at bay as French traders and Australian traders worked about the islands. Australian ships traded regularly about the islands, by the 1840's it was a regular run - sandalwood, copra and beche-de-mer being commodities. There were usually half a dozen of our ships working around the island at any one time. At times we rescued Frenchmen when their ships hit reefs and were wrecked, usually they requested to be brought to Australia, arranged officially through their Consul.

Captains found the native people of New Caledonia were excellent seamen and employed many. Most skippers were on good terms with the native people, as they were traders, not slavers. Those employed were treated and paid the same as anyone else. Mostly things went ok but some Australians working at the sandalwood trade were murdered and eaten by the natives at times, probably as slavers were illegally raiding there in those times. 


Yet to discover whether the first horses on New Caledonia were Australian. It's likely. There were 27 mounted police in 1857. Foot police were added,  the mounted unit remained much the same numbers through to 1860.

In 1858 a group of Australians petitioned Napoleon III who allowed them a land grant of 200,000 acres to grow coffee and sugar on New Caledonia - with certain conditions (they had to get many other settlers and also labourers, to be given land grants after 12 years). There were French, German and English settlers; convicts were given land grants once qualified, and those in forced labour after a certain term - everyone wanted horses. People on NC began breeding horses in a big way. The French kept an army there, as uprisings from the original inhabitants occurred - it was after all a colony. They sought Lancers from Tahiti, stipulating each recruit provided his own horse. Tahiti was a French colony, and we also took horses there.

As convicts started arriving in 1863, police horse numbers increased. Needless to say, as with most colonies, some people selected for 'peace-keeping' forces were often brutal. Escaped French convicts sailed to Australia in small stolen boats, just as earlier, Australian convicts had sailed to New Caledonia.

1859 the French government bought the Australian schooner Lady Grey in Sydney, for surveying the coast of New Caledonia and nearby islands. They took her over with a full load of horses;
 it was mentioned several other shiploads of livestock including horses had already gone over.

In 1862 the Bengal took over cattle, sheep and 30 horses from Sydney. In 1864 the barque Margaret Eliza, Capt. Smith, went over from Sydney with a full load of cattle and horses, she left on Christmas Day and got there in a speedy 14 days, no horses lost and all arrived 'in splendid condition.' She sailed back to Brisbane in a super fast 4 days.

The first race meeting was held in 1865, most horses had English names - probably from Australia - there were gallops, jumps, trots and pony races. It was supported by the Governor of NC and nuns took their charges from school along; a social event and a lot of fun. The gallops race was won by Coquet, second Kuoeta, third Fanny, fourth Jane. The trot race was won by Coco, second Belle, third Captain, fourth Peggy. Five ponies ran in their race, won by Folichene.

1869 horses racing had an equal mix of French and English names (one called El Barbe).

1870 the highest prize money (first race) at the races at Paita in December, was for horses foaled in NC, thus encouraging breeding; won by the horse Captain Rock. In that year an Australian stallion, Tumblebee, won everything else. A reporter at the races was keen to describe the meeting and wondered where a badly conformed horse came from (patently not Australia!).


1873 20 horses went over. 

1874 a news report there praised a new arrival, young Leamington - a 3 year old filly from Australia. 
1876 20 went over. 
A stallion named Rupert sent over in the 1880's threw some good racing stock there. Working horses were sought too (artillery types) and sent over. As well as farming, mining was going ahead. The amount of Australian stockmen there tells us horses were going over on a regular basis. 

1878 was the big uprising - a lot of killing by both sides; the French hurriedly raised a mounted troop from convict Arabs (political prisoners from Algiers and Paris) to help, as their expertise with horses was legendary. It transpired none of them had any horse experience but weren't going to say so. Understandable!

A lengthy report from a correspondent there was published in October 1878 in the Sydney Morning Herald and said the police were the cause of the uprising, and that there were several Australian stockmen there ready to ride with the French to help put the uprising down, and that the Arabs mounted as guards were not horsemen before being assigned this job, thus were no good with horses in the bush. Mounted guards (the French) used revolvers against the natives as they forced their way through; Australians fought their way through Boulouparie with stockwhips. Atrocites by the French were reported. There were good NZ horsemen also with the Australians, praised for their cool heads and horsemanship.

After the uprising, mo
unted police numbers rose to 63. They sent to Australia for more police horses.


 Mounted police 1920, New Caledonia.



                                                                                
postcard of stock horses, New Caledonia


1875 on the steamer Lord Ashley, 15 large horses sent for gendarmes were set loose to jump overboard in a big storm, one lost its footing and crushed the ships carpenter to death. The rest swam after the ship "shrieking dreadfully". The ship did not sink. 
1881 George Kiss sent a shipload over, on an order.
1891 the steamer Victoria lost a load of horses washed overboard, steaming to Noumea in a big storm.  In 1891 they halted imports for a time due to an outbreak of pink-eye in horses around Sydney.
1894 3 per Tanias for McNamara.
1898  shipload from Newcastle.

There were amusing articles in the early papers at times that Napoleon may use New Caledonia "to pounce on Australia." No-one took this seriously. The island was used as a penal colony - a lot of interesting mostly political prisoners sent there including many Berbers. Their convict era started in 1863 - a decade after ours ended.

1901 report said racehorses and racing people went over, mostly for the three months of July-September when racing took place, the rest of the time it being too hot. They usually went to the capital of Noumea. There was also unregistered racing (for horses not in the Thoroughbred studbook). 

1911 two horses went over on the Suva, July. 
1912 some New Caledonian horses came over here to race at Randwick; the news report said the population there was very multicultural and the French kept up with Australia's cricket scores (they supported us wholeheartedly against England!), Australian stockmen moved there, veterinarians, and over 2,000 Japanese had settled there looking for work after the Russo-Japanese war; and all horses were of a fine stamp and plenty of them. 
1923 a report said that all horses on New Caledonia were descended from Australian horses.

In the 1930's and early 40's a Mr Jones sent racehorses over, once 20 in one load, and had success racing them there with his horses Whisper Low and Roslyn. There were ongoing sales for racehorses, some Australians also moved there. Good consistent although not a big trade trade. Hacks, carriage horses, police horses, work horses and ponies were sent over.

Australia helped New Caledonia become an Allied base in WW2 - North America had as many troops there as the population, being the main Pacific navy base for them, a tough time for NC. We sent over 2,000 horses for their army. The North Americans selected and bought these horses, took them straight to Pinkenba, the Brisbane shipping yards, and refused to dip or spray them as normal quarantine practise. They would not abide by our law in our country. Most of the horses had been sourced in Queensland from cattle tick areas. The horses took this pest to New Caledonia which created havoc and a lot of trouble to control it - over 160 dips for cattle had to be made and a lot of dip bought. The people there were naturally angry and tried to sue the North American government. We had always been careful with quarantine procedures largely because of tick, and never taken this pest or any pest or disease anywhere in over a century and horses were a major export. Some tick areas dipped horses three times on their travels. Likewise we were careful about horses coming in, to keep our disease free status. 

Beautiful place with a strong horse culture. Riding is popular, horse sport, work horses for cattle. Indigenous people use horses for transport and to pack goods into terrain too difficult for vehicles at times, such as when re-vegetating eroded areas. Wild horses roam about New Caledonia. Great place for a holiday and for riding - fabulous horse treks on beaches, through mountain forests, swimming in rivers etc. 




Mauritius... A good market over many decades - early records show we took horses there in 1845, at least two shiploads that year, some from Adelaide, some from the Swan River (Western Australia).  It was a good trade for Western Australian horses.

Horses from South Australia went over in 1860 and 1861 and probably earlier, with the Baldock brothers (bio further down).

Trade from Australia to Mauritius was regular and due to mails arriving, port reports from Mauritius regularly appeared in our newspaper. Not all ship cargoes were itemised. The horse trade to Mauritius from Australia went steadily on through the early nineteenth into the early twentieth century. 

Races there were reported on, in 1840 - 30 horses raced that year. In 1842 it was reported all horses for that year came from France, the Cape, Muscat (Arabia), Malay Islands (Lombock specified) and Burmah, and that all were good but small and larger horses were wanted. This report may well have kicked off the trade there. 

By 1844 racing went over 3 days. Racing at that stage was one meeting a year, in August (too hot much of the year). Racing grew as the population grew - migration grew quickly. French creole people were the most keen racing people it was reported in the 1870's. A lot of Australian jockeys went to Mauritius to ride over the years, some trained horses there too.

In 1870 the Duke of Edinburgh visited, among the festivities were races - an Australian horse named Satan won the Prince Alfred Plate worth a hefty 250 pounds, with the Governor and Duke watching.

The Maiden Plate was described as their Derby - a maiden for horses that had not won on Mauritius, hence some top quality horses were bought to compete in it. In 1878 an Australian horse named Doctor won it, in 1880 an Australian horse named Emperor won. It paid handsomely for the win - some 250 pounds.


 View of harbour from the roof of Government House, Port Louis, Mauritius circa 1861- 1872 - lots of horses and carriages, probably hackney cabs, along avenue. 
Photo by Francis Downes from the collection of the Governor of Mauritius and Cape Province, Sir Henry Barkly. Previously Barkly had been the Governor of Victoria, Australia where he was paid the highest salary in the British empire. A Scottish born conservative.
Photo source State library of Victoria, Australia.

Here's a rough idea of numbers of horses sent there from Australia, found with a quick look in Australian archives, there would have been far more... 
1843 one horse per Trusty (with other stock) from the Swan.
1845 horses in cargoes there reported (probably two, maybe three ships), no horse numbers given, some shipped from Adelaide in the Unicorn by Davey & Roberston for Messrs Sampson; others from the Swan River in the Emma Sherrit - reported carriage pairs in demand and entire half bred ponies, that English horses crossed to Tmor Ponies were the most popular. Prices were high. 
1846 the Cumberland, barque, takes a load of 41 horses and ponies plus sheep and cattle from Swan River.
1849 the Fanny Fisher took a load of horses over, one 'docile piebald pony' sold on behalf  of A.H. Stone for the grand sum of 37 pounds. It was pointed out that broken in horses commanded far higher prices than wild ones. 
1855 15 per Swan, from the Swan (Perth).
1860 the clipper ship Arabella took a load there (no numbers given but barques usually loaded 20 - 80 horses, on her tonnage one would think about 40 horses; there was a far bigger barque of the same name built a little later which was well known on the WA trading run). This Arabella sailed from Adelaide on this trip, she had an arduous trip of 79 days due to little wind yet managed to get her horses delivered safely. Load went over with William Baldock from S.A.
1861 40 on the Leonie + 24 per Phantom. Load from S.A. with William Baldock.
1865 20 horses per Sea Ripple from Swan River + shipload per the Robert Passenger.
1868 69 horses

1869 shipments of 20 per Elizabeth, 22 per Eva Joshua and 19 horses per Rio.
1870 unspecified number on the Eva Joshua.
1876 horses from Fremantle. 
1877 75 + 70 horses from South Australia + load on the James Service from Melbourne + load per Sea Ripple from Fremantle April.
1878 load on the Bessie from Fremantle + 32 on the Macquarie also from Freo.
1879 20 on the Kishon + 64 on Bessie + 20 on Iris all from Fremantle.
1881 - load on the Janet.
1880 4o horses from Fremantle also load from Cossack, also another load from Freo.
1879 three shiploads arrived together, total 202 had. The Iris took 74 and the Janet 80 all for Avery.
1883 load on the Laughing Wave from Fremantle, arrived Dec.
1884 44 horses from Fremantle + another 71 horses + 58 per Bessie from Port Walcott, Feb + load on the Iris arrived from Freo in Feb.
1885 28 + 70 from Fremantle per Star Queen and Janet.
1887 31 horses. 
1888 40 horses from Cossack (W.A.) and 116 from Fremantle for Mr Avery and another shipload numbers unspecified. 
1889, 97 horses from Fremantle per Fleur de Maurice and a further 77 from Freo all sourced from New Norcia station. 
1890 40 from Cossack (north west W.A.) from Karratha Station belonging to J & R. Clarkson. + 150 horses on the Clitus from Melbourne for Edouard Duclos + 200 on the steamer Port Victoria.
1891 160 carriage and draught horses per August for Duclos.
1893, 69 horses from Melbourne per s.s. Cloncurry. 
1897, 50 horses from Port Adelaide on the County of Ayr and 140 from Victoria. 
1900, upwards of 1,000 head were sent from Qld, SA, Vic., W.A. and NSW on steamers, usually 200 per ship. 
1901 28 horses from Port Adelaide.  
1903 500 horses on the Louise Roth, 300 from Brisbane and 200 from Bowen + 300 on the Queen Louise. Edouard Dulos had come over from Mauritius to choose them, several were matched carriage pairs.
1904 a shipload of the horses' friendly little cousins went - 125 donkeys. 

All up, several thousand horses were sent to Mauritius from the 1840's on (as per Aust archives). Ships traded there regularly from Australia but when cargoes are not itemised, cannot say if they took horses or not. Only those specifically itemised are used here. 

Mauritius imported a lot of big mules from France and Buenos Ayres, ponies from Sandalwood, horses from Monte Video, Bombay etc as well as from us.

A few racehorses went but most were utility horses - artillery types for workhorses and draughts for carrying sugar  - a major crop of Mauritius - in mountainous terrain; the rest were riding and carriage horses including some beautifully matched pairs, remarked on by many. Australian horses got outstanding prices in Mauritius.

Racing started there in 1812 and was a great social occasion. In 1949 an Australian jockey returning home said athere were 64 racehorses, all were allocated by ballot by the two turf clubs - owners could not buy and race a horse otherwise. At the end of the season horses could be retained or handed back to go into a pool for re-distribution, those not wanted by trainers went to be cart horses. In 1953 the Mauritius Turf Club and the Mauritius Jockey Club merged. In 1949 all racehorses there were from Africa, France, India and England. English is the official language but little used - Creole is spoken by 90% of the population, and French. Hindu and some other languages are in use. race club info.

A Dutch then French then English colony, Mauritius gained its independence in 1968.






Hong Kong... the China market is worth a book too. 

As early as 1848 the Plenipotentary's Cup was a race for Walers. The start of Walers racing regularly in Hong Kong. In 1868, only Walers were entered for the German Cup.

As an early example, the ship Alligator took a load of horses over to Hong Kong in 1844 from Twofold Bay, Eden, NSW.

Anyway, interesting to see much later, in 1950, Mr. W. Woods bought sixty horses early in the year for Hong Kong at Toowoomba, and came back in October that year to Toowoomba and to Rockhampton for hundreds more - saddle horses, broken and unbroken, 3 to 6 years old. He was competing at bidding with the Beaudesert abbatoir buyer - it was late in the horse trade days, the tide was turning. 

Hong Kong was a good market for over a century. Thankfully it continued late. Needless to say they also bought a gadzillion racehorses from us. Hong Kong of course was a British colony long after other places there, now part of China again. 

There were regular reports here in the papers, one in 1876 and another in 1910 went into great detail about griffin and pony racing. The was a constant lamenting the price (transport being the major component of price, it being a long trip), in 1876 it was said our ponies were too expensive and China, Manila (Spanish Philippines) and Japan ponies were increasingly used. Races were for ponies only, despite TB's coming in occasionally, no-one wanted to keep and race a large horse. Professional riders could train the ponies, but amateurs must ride them in their races. It was well run and genteel, women could stroll about and not be offended as there was no shouting or bad language. Bungalows were erected in the enclosure and tiffin served. There was a pretty grandstand of two tiers. Before the three days of racing, people liked to gather in the early mornings and for a small fee have hot coffee, tea and biscuits while watching training. Over the three days racing carnival, 27 events were held, all for ponies. There was little betting but sweeps were popular in the lead up to the races. 

In the 1930's, because of the Japanese invasion, ponies were sourced from Australia as it was too dangerous getting them from northern China.

A few loads/news... (loads more not all cargoes reported)... 

1853 report on the races with results, 2 days of racing, several pony events, 2 hack races - in the hack race Arabs carried 9 stone 10 pounds, Sydney, Cape, English and stud horses had to carry 11 stone 10 pounds. An Arab welter was held. 
1857 races were held over 2 days, and included a race for Arab horses only. There were several pony races and 2 hack races. 
1879 2 ponies on the Hermione.
1885 a report said only Mongolian ponies were raced, no Walers, Indian or English ponies.
1905 traveller reported most carriages were drawn by Australain horses.
1926 the Fanling Hunt Club was formed, with the race club of Kwanti. The hunts had big fields, and hounds; hunt horses were needed; they also held steeplechases. Ponies at the races all Manchurian.
1931, 31 ponies went over on the Tanda. On another trip the Tanda took 53 racing ponies. Another 12 went on the Kwongiang, but she was lost in a typhoon, all hands and passengers - 50 souls, and ponies - lost.
1932, Dr. Louis Reidy of Queensland was Colonial Veterinary Surgeon at Hong Kong and raced one of the best ponies there, called Season Ticket, she was from northern Queensland. The Chartres Towers Cup was for Australian horses only.
1938 it was reported Australian ponies would contest a "Melbourne Cup' of 10 furlongs for a big prize of $1,000. 23 offspring of Australian stallions had been successful that season, the most successful the progeny of Double Court. The race meetings were now 10 a year. All reports loved the course and atmosphere, and that there was no drunkeness or rowdiness. Australian ponies had won a combined huge amount, the most was won by Gypsy Love. Also in 1938 Jim Morrow and George McDonald took over 62 griffins.
1939, 60 ponies on the Tanda from Sydney and Brisbane (120 altogether, another 60 went to Shanghai). Each had  special box and elaborate care was being taken of them. In July on the Tanda another two hundred and fifty hacks also.
1940, despite a war being on it was reported there were still 500 ponies in the HKJC stables.
1947 ponies taken over on the Chanda from Qld. 31 on the Nellore from Brisbane.
1952, Duchess of Kent attended and watched an Australian pony called Bootsie win by a nose.
1953 a report on racing there, explaining the season and that Australian ponies were sent over that year.


Skymaster, owner Mr Airview Wong Bo-yin and named after his favorite aircraft, was an Australian griffin who streeted his first race, and became a famous racing pony in Hong Kong, trained his entire career by Lin Yun-Foo. He first raced in 1949 and had 18 wins from 27 starts through to 1953. detail 




Source: The Telegraph, Brisbane, April 1947.

After WW2 no more China ponies were raced, it was all Australian ponies and griffins. The first post-war race meeting was held in January 1947. Prize money was very good. A fabulous post war market for ponies. 


Tooday Herald (W.A.), August 1946

The fascinating thing about Hong Kong racing, is that they raced griffins early, happily tried out Australian griffins and horses, and really opened up a market for them. When a new height change was mooted in 1903 to allow taller horses to race, they tried hard to use rules to fit 'Old Walers' (ponies) and Walers (horses). A lot of griffins (Walers) were bought in 1901 and 1902, as the Boxer Rebellion had held up China pony imports. In 1903 the first Waler Champion trophy was run. China ponies came back into supply and Waler imports dropped although in 1904 there were still three races per meeting for Walers. This run down from the HKJC has top detail about the Waler in Hong Kong. Hong Kong relied on Shanghai, Tietsin and Korea for ponies more than Australia as these were nearby markets of plentiful strong ponies, that were inexpensive. They were about 13 hands. Racing was fun, locals and women too involved with owning, training and riding. The Happy Valley course was a big social attraction.
We'd been sending better ponies and horses to India, the East Indies, Singapore and Japan. By the late 1930's we began sending better quality horses to Hong Kong. The expense of shipping meant even inexpensive animals in Australia could not compete price-wise earlier.

Traders too, did not place the importance on griffins they did on proven race ponies and horses for orders. Hong Kong chiefly wanted griffins. Traders had got into the habit of going to India each season as it was their core business, so they didn't get to see how important griffin racing was, and that a good griffin became a highly valued pony. 

It must have been a combination of the horse market in free fall and racing increasing in popularity that led to better quality horses going over (for racing and polo) at a price they were happy with. Hong Kong really put our Waler ponies on the map from their genesis. It will always be in the heart of Waler fans for that. Many have gone down in history, winning big cups, fame and prize money for their owners and trainers. Thanks Hong Kong!




China (in general)... shipload of 345 cobs and 100 gunners in 1900 to northern China (Boxer Reb) for Imperial army chosen by Colonel Hunt and Captain Nutall, Hunt being the President of the Imperial Remount Committee in Australia; the horses were chosen in the Hunter and Gunnedah area, climatically similar to destination. Lots others went for over a century, countless, e.g. to Tsientsin. Armies, polo, paperchasers, work-horses, hacks, carriage horses, griffins etc. The Chinese Imperial Army, civil admin and merchants bought horses from us, as well as the British Imperial Army and personel there. Paper-chasing was a hugely popular sport, and Australian horses sought after for this fun form of cross country riding. In the 1880's it was reported griffin sales were dropping off due to finances over there. The two big race meetings were spring and autumn. 

China got a big influx of horses in 1900-1901, after the Boxer Rebellion, The "Army of Eight' - the countries who invaded - had many mounted units. Looting was so extreme there was no space to take horses home. Only the Germans took some of their Australian horses back to Germany on a specially chartered ship. This is looked at as a landmark change in horse genetics and horse size of the country, around the major centres. These 'war horses' were then bred to China ponies for racing animals, called Z-class. They were raced separately to China ponies because of their height and weight carrying abilities. detail and mentions Walers as gradually replacing China ponies until 1960 (pony Walers). Some z-class ponies such as Liberty Bay became famous.

When griffins had had their first race in Hong Kong, they were often sold on to mainland China for the Foochoow and Amor races. A good griffin fetched a huge price. Canton also held races. Like other places there were classes for various types although in 1876 no Manila or Japan or Australian ponies were entered, solely China ponies.

There were big horse (pony) fairs at Lai-Chow-Fu, across the bay from Tianjin and 120 miles from Chefoo where races were popular with locals and people stationed at the Customs etc. Australian ponies were often raced at Chefoo.

At Canton the races were said to be the most family friendly and fun. All racing in China in that era was though, gambling was a mere sideline at some places, and very minor. Having a pony to race and also ride, was a great form of entertainment and beat walking.




Shanghai... another good market for a long time and one of the wold's great ports. Yet another market in China worth a book or three. 

The famous Horse Bazaar, not far from the racecourse, was established in the 1840's. A book published in 1867 said horses were brought there from Australia frequently, selling for high prices - 800Tls, while ponies from the north (possibly Mongolia) sold for 50 Tls. (book The Treaty Ports of China and Japan, Maayers, Dennys and King, re-published Cambridge Uni Press 2012). Nevertheless, then and for another three decades horses were hard to get, and ponies too. Ships going to China were sure of selling any horses sent as a speculation.

Horses at times were sent from India to Shanghai, it being shorter, and the horses already army trained. In 1860 1,200 artillery horses were sent to Shanghai from India and Manila for the French, who were on a colonising expedition, aided in this by the English.

Also continued into a late market, thankfully, for the horse trade. In 1934 for example, 200 horses a month were being shipped over for van horses. Shiploads of griffins and hacks went over in 1939. Cobs in 1906 etc. Cargo ships invariably had twenty odd horses on board either orders or a good speculation - and ships arrived daily from Australia. George Kiss sent 23 horses over in 1902. P.H. Morton 32 in 1907.

In 1909 Shanghai reported 35,000 horses were needed for the army, so they set up two breeding areas in China. The cost from Australia was probably prohibitive although they asked us for 10,000 horses in 1910 (still investigating whether this came to fruition).
The Shanghai Horse Bazaar was where most Australian horses were sold there. In 1906 Special Agent Burrill of the US govt reported that most horses sold throughout China were Australian, and urged his government to get in on the trade (Sydney Stock & Station Journal, Jan 1906), which gives an indication we had a very sound trade there, as well as ship cargo. 

In 1881 a travellers report in the Capricornian said the Bazaar was very busy, there were the usual full horse facilities, coach builders etc, and about 500 ponies were kept at livery. Mobs of up to 1,000 ponies at a time were overlanded from Tartary and Mongolia for the sales, most being bought for griffins. The Chinese horsemen who looked after the horses at the Bazaar were every bit as good as those at Kirks and the English horse bazaars (high praise).


Photo: Shangai Volunteer Corps on patrol 1902.photo source


The Shanghai Volunteer Corps was a big outfit that patrolled Shanghai to keep it safe for civilians and for defense against invaders. It was an international type outfit, essentially a state supported militia, composed of people from several nationalities (colonisers, even the French and English worked together!) - British were about half the number, there were local Chinese, and Japanese, Scots, French and Portugese, etc members. They had several mounted units and were good buyers of horses. They also had artillery units, and mounted police. Sikhs from India made up the mounted police in Shanghai for decades, always taking excellent care of their horses and beautifully turned out; their horses too were mostly all Walers. The council paid the Corps costs including hiring an army Colonel from Britain to be in charge and paying his salary.

Sh
anghai's famous big fire department also used Australian horses mostly. 

updating (probably pointless as horses went over all the time, not always listed)... 
1864 8 good horses from Messers Wyndham, Dangar etc sent by W. Burt.
1875 20 horses.
1902 30 ponies for Shanghai Racing Club on the Guthrie.
1912 25 horses from McCabe, Morton & Co for the International Racecourse Club per Changsha, October.
1939 60 racing ponies + 50 hacks went over on the Tanda (120 ponies went, 60 were for Hong Kong) plus two hundred and fifty hacks.
1949 shipload of griffins.

The Shanghai Paper Hunt Club. As hunting wasn't available, people stationed in China began cross country riding for sport, this became the weekend paper hunt, dubbed 'hare and hounds' although no hounds were used. A trail of paper, coloured for various reasons (purple for a bog, green a check at a bridge etc) was laid for 5 or more miles, after following it by spreading out and shouting Tally Ho! when the trail was found, there was a race like a point to point for a finish line. Having been doing this unofficially for a time, the hunt club was formed in 1863. The first winner was a pony named Mud. Horses had to be under 14 hands - ponies - so China ponies and Mongolians could be used. They also sent for Australian ponies. Although it was fun, early disregard for people's lands and crops caused anger, so compensation was paid, bridges built, care taken with routes and the hunts held in November (winter) after crops were off, etc. Farmers also had fun re-routing the hunt by moving the paper clues. A lot of Chinese were in the hunt club too. The season ended in March. It gained a lot of followers. video of the hunt club. During the Boxer Rebellion, British and Germans kept up the hunt and Russians joined in. Virtually every mount had been a griffin at some stage.





Pekin... horses for Pekin (now Beijing) were taken to the port of Tangu/Tanggu/Taku, which is now called Tianjin, also called Tsietsin. Pekin may have been down as destination but there was no good port. If the port simply said Taku then one knew the horses were going to nearby Pekin usually, or Tsiensin itself if there was a war on. Small but steady market - being so far away transport costs from Australia made our ponies expensive, and there was access to good, less expensive Mongolian ponies. 

There was a giant influx in the time of the Boxer Rebellion when we sent thousands of horses there. 

Racing ponies there was huge - in the 1860's and 70's the crowds were 80,000 at each race - the biggest races on earth. great read about it
Racing united countries - everyone stationed there, even although their home countries may be at war elsewhere, happily co-operated to run the races and cheer their ponies on.
'...There were about twenty of us, as a rule, from all nations and kindreds of the earth, bound by the double bonds of exile and a common interest; some had come from the neighboring temples, others had ridden from the city at the opening of the gates, and all had forgotten the cares of life and the dust-begrimed city, English and French, Germans, Russians, and Italians; citizens of the Great Republic and even the receptive children of the Rising Sun — all met in this ricketty old shanty on a common ground of goodfellowship. Let us then, gentlest reader, concede one virtue to this our horse-cult, since over it the Briton and the Kalmuck can meet in peace while Teuton and Gaul sink their differences in its pursuing. For this much, at any rate, is certain that neither over diplomacy, business, slander nor any other subject except that of ponies, can twenty men enjoy each other's society for two hours consecutively in any part of China.' extract 'Racing in Peking' article, no author given, in the Evening News (Sydney) 29th August, 1896.



New Zealand... A very good trade from earliest colonial days.
1840 shipload from Sydney. Also a load from Hobart on the Integrity.
1855 two shiploads from Sydney,  
1857 14 horses in the Clarendon from Sydney to Wellington.
1859 from Melbourne
1861,'62, 63, '64 - 1870 thousands of horses went from Tasmania to NZ - good ships could sail from Hobart or Launceston to Dunedin in 5 days and land their horses 'in splendid condition.' 

Various others other years.
Draught crosses for work were very popular and the New Zealanders paid well. The trade from Tasmania to NZ was brisk. Horses also went from Melbourne and Sydney. A very good early trade for us.

They started breeding themselves and got their own export trade going, chiefly around the Pacific Islands but also India and various countries; easily able to mount their own men for war on super good horses. They were excellent horsemen and always took good care of their horses. Fabulous customers and good neighbours. A good horse culture, still thriving.



New Hebrides (Vanuatu)... this group of islands was inhabited but taken over, in a greedy series of squabbling and treaty breaking, by the English and French; to avoid a full on fight they finally shared occupation. People could decide which nation's law to live under. Blackbirding (taking men for indentured labour, a form of slavery) by Australia and New Caledonia meant the male population was reduced by half. Many settlers moved there from Australia (and other places). Horses were needed for farm work - livestock and plantations, as well as transport. The Makambo took a load over in 1927, bad storms meant three died on the way. Vanuatu got its independence in 1980 after a long patient struggle, France not wanting to give it up. Riding was popular with everyone and still is. Horses went over on trading steamers that usually called at Fiji and Tonga on the way. They probably got horses elsewhere too such as from the French (New Caledonia, although most of theirs were from us, not all were), possibly the Dutch East Indies etc  - French ships had a trading route from Marseilles in France via their colonies and trade ports. Small trade but good. Great place for a holiday too.

Mozambique...
Was also known as Portugese East Africa. The steamer Johannesburg left from Beira - a port of call for traders on the South African run - came here and went back with a load of horses in 1899; possibly for war efforts. 

We had regular trade there as Beira was a port of call on the south African run, we sent frozen meat there etc. Prior, sailing ships as well as steamers traded from Australia to Beira, the barque Marie and another being wrecked there in 1890 returning to Australia in ballast.

Beira is on a big river which was useful to take cargo up, in smaller boats, including horses for settlers, soldiers and miners; Australian miners were going there in the 1890's with working horses, most were organised with co-ops and companies set up to provide neccessities.

The British steamer Turkestan had her name changed to Beira about this time, showing it had become a signifigant port - the British regularly landed stuff here for their colonies inland and took goods out, a railway from the port inland to Salisbury etc made a big lift in shipping trade after 1899.

Horse disease was a problem. Tse tse fly meant horses often didn't last long. There was conflict in nearby British colonies in 1896, the Portugese lent the British forces their horses at that time.

In 1900 we landed several thousand horses there with our troops for the Boer War. No horses came home. Ships the Atlantian, Euryalus, Maplemore, Gymeri, Victoria and Chicago took a lot of horses with Australian Bushmen contingents. They were prime horses. Ship the Waimate brought men and horses from NZ, they too had excellent war horses. 

All horses from the first three ships mentioned were taken to Marandells in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), then a British possession. Troops were dispersed to Salisbury, Buluwayo etc and some went to the relief of Mafeking etc. Plenty of military sources on all this. Appropriately, we had a Captain Dobbin at Beira in charge of our horses.




Horses, men and gear of the 4th Imperial Victorian Bushmen being unloaded from the steamer Victoria at Beira, Portugese East Africa, 1900.


There was no wharf, so horses were slung over into punts, fifty a day thus being unloaded. It's noted here as some horses remained in country, hence may have had a genetic influence, of a minor sort, on local horses. Some of our men caught typhoid fever in Beira and some horses got blue tongue, both lethal, many deaths ensued. 

A small but signifigant trade as many of the traded horses went to Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), hence genes were spread widely from this one port. Many shiploads of horses at Boer War time were private speculations, they sold chiefly to armies however many mercenaries were in the market too; miners, farmers, merchants, civil admin etc.

Mozambique gained independence from Portual in 1975.




~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 



Unloading from ships... 

In Calcutta the port was shallow, ships had to unload

horses by sling into lighters, usually local boats called mussoola boats about 20 feet long. It was dangerous, especially when the horses leapt out near shore virtually capsizing the little boats. The same at Madras where weather could stop a ship coming in and huge surf dangerously impede unloading and sharks were plentiful. photo, Argus, 1943.

Before long large barges were used which were far more stable. They were brought alongside and many horses could be lowered into them from the big ship. The horses were jumped out into the sea, near shore, and the barge scarcely rocked.




Landing horses at Madras, 1834. 


At Ujina in Japan the horses (thousands) were lowered into large sampans to get to shore, these were deep in straw. Here the Japanese cavalry made the best job of anywhere of handling the wild horses ordered, getting them ashore and to stables with no upraised voices, not a mark on a single horse - the most professional and patient handlers the shippers had seen. They preferred their straw packed sampans to the ship's lighters.

The great vet and horseman Matthew Horace Hayes, who'd been in India and famously called Walers the best cavalry mounts in the world, wrote a book about caring for horses on board ship - it was such a huge business. His best known book about veterinary care for horses is the "Bible" to horsemen. He pointed out in the shipping book something good horsemen knew - not to ride horses much after shipping, as they would break down due to having been standing in one place for weeks. They needed a good rest and bringing along gently until ready. Some shippers such as Madden had their own lands in India to rest horses. The remount depots in India had paddocks as well as yards and stables.

Some passenger liners such as the Solingen regularly carried horses, as well as passengers and some cargo for ballast, on these trips the horsemen enjoyed comfortable cabins, a saloon and entertainment between working hours. 

All ships had their fun times when crossing the equator when it was party time on board, with much silliness.







~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 



Dangers shipping.... Weather of course was a major danger if storms occurred, luckily the horse trade fairly much kicked off as steam power came in, so  many sailing ships had motors fitted to power through regardless. Ironically, as engines became outmoded, several ships including horse ships were later converted from steam to sail. We had a good 20 to 30 years of sending horses by sail before steam came in. Some sailing ships continued carrying horses into the early twentieth century. In certain conditions clippers were faster than steam - and no coal costs, plus more cargo could be carried instead of coal.

The massive steamers of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century carried tens of thousands of horses - many built especially for the Australian horse trade. Horses falling was a danger in storms, or getting loose and falling on people. Being becalmed was a worse hazard for sail - fresh water could run out, stifling heat, bad ventilation, strangles, inactivity were all killers.

Unhandled horses could be a danger, kicking or biting grooms - usually racehorses, perhaps oated up. Most horses settled quickly and learned the routine. Human bones were broken at times, but surprisingly rarely considering how huge the trade was.

Torres Straits was a major navigation hazard, countless ships being wrecked there, crews usually saved by making it to Booby Island in lifeboats, or other places. They avoided the Torres Straits islands due to natives murdering wrecked sailors, early on. This often meant a dangerous sail back to Australia. The little settlements on the Cape (Cape York) were made because of wrecks from the horse trade, for safe havens, places like Somerset. Many horses were lost in the Straits but a surprising amount saved due to the ingenuity of ships Captains and crews, and the practise of all passing ships going to the rescue of humans and horses. Some horses swam to land, on the far north of Queensland, to run wild in paradise.

Fire on board was a major worry. Carrying horse fodder in immense quantities meant spontaneous combustion in hay happened at times. It became safer to carry short feed as well as hay  - bran, chaff - oats were never taken on board, or given to horses on board by professional shippers. Walers were usually never fed oats as they were developed to thrive perfectly on low quality feed, and simply exploded if given an oat. Fussy shippers often took a chaff cutter on board, so grooms spent a couple of hours a day chopping fresh chaff for feeding time.  Various methods were used to control fire, a main one being to batten hatches and deprive the fire of oxygen. Feed was usually stowed forward in a separate compartment so it could be shut off. Fire was very rare on Australian ships as the danger was well known and planned for.

War usually we didn't ship during wars with active naval action (apart from the world wars) but did take horses to Port Arthur in Manchuria, Japan and Korea when the Russian Navy were active in the Russo-Japanese war. At least two Japanese ships carrying horses were torpeded (they'd come from Japan but may have had Australian horses on board) - the Hitachi Maru and Sado Maru. The Houlder Line ship Allandale was captured by the Russians as a prize while she was carrying horses and fodder to this war for the Japanese. She was regained when the Japanese Navy beat the Russian Navy. Several other ships were seized by the Russians. The Knight Commander (British) for example carrying rice to Japan was sunk. The Tsinan (British owned but traded in Australia and Asia) also carrying rice was apprehended and the Knight Commanders crew put on her, and allowed to continue. The Russian Navy behaved with honour in this war, which was also a tremendous Navy war as well as a land war. 

In WW1 and 2 several ships were sunk while carrying horses, notably those from the US and Canada trying to get horses over to the UK and Europe. On the whole we were lucky in the horse trade to chiefly trade for standing armies, sport, private citizens, and when there was war, they were land wars; thus the trade avoided a lot of transport grief.

After wars were dangerous when mines were in the Sea of Japan. After the Russo-Japanese war, our traders to Vladivostock were at risk of being sunk. The Russian pilots guided vessels through moored mines as they got to Vladivostock, but many mines were on long lines across the sea from Korea and the coast - dangerous for trading ships. Mines were also free floating (anything from 6 to 16 feet under water). They were both Japanese and Russian mines. Vladivostock was the last port of call for our ships on the Asia run (Manila, Hong Kong, Japan for re-coaling, thence Russia etc) with goods. Many big horse ships went there (none with horses all the way as far as can be ascertained, they were dropped off en route, it was a long trip). The Gulf of Venice, Captain Orkney, went there in March 1906 with a big load of frozen meat, and followed the pilots instructions to the letter on the way in and out of harbour, unlike some ships. He noted there were excellent horses there. details

Pirates. Ships usually carried firepower as a good deterrant, many had cannon. They also depended on speed and/or sheer size. The seas through the Dutch East Indies trading routes were notorious for pirates, but on the whole they left the horse ships alone, and ships were quick to come to the aid of any that ran aground on reefs or became disabled. Malacca had a lot of pirates, and Sumatra. Gun boats patrolled. Some native pirates there were famous, their praus well fitted with guns. 

The pirate Bully Hayes (1829 - 1877) was plundering about the Pacific, but horses on a ship were not his cup of tea (although he started his career stealing horses on land) although he would have 'taxed' a skipper it appears he didn't catch a horse ship. By all accounts disreputable ratbag.

Bass Strait was notorious for pirates, Ben Boyd's fine schooner Wanderer (which brought 6 Barb stallions out from Africa for Boyd to breed India horses on the Monaro) was attacked near Flinders Island by a pirate brig  - the Wanderer crew fired on them which stayed them enough for the Wanderer to get under way with a will - she was speedy and all hands laid on. She escaped after a scary chase - had the pirates but known it, she was doing a gold, silver and money run - loaded with a fortune. Boyd was on board and directed orders.  Most pirates there were in fact wreckers. 

There were pirates off Madagascar, India, northern Africa, South America, and the coast of China was 'swarming with pirates' - they were practically everywhere - it was all taken into account. Many ships were lost and their crews murdered, but horse ships seem to have escaped the worst.

The Chinese pirates were skilled and rivalled the buccaneers for their robbing. The East India Company had ships patrolling to capture pirates, they got smaller pirate gangs but the big ones ruled the seas, such as Ching Shih. Ching Shih was the most famous female pirate, and the most successful pirate in history. She was from Canton. After a life of highly organised pirating controlling hundreds of armed ships and tens of thousands of recruits, she retired fabulously wealthy in China.

In 1886 the steamer Sumatra travelling from Australia went to the aid of a large junk between Hong Kong and Singapore, as she was passing water over she realised they were pirates about to board and made a narrow escape. The same year North Americans on a steamer were pirating about German New Guinea (Papua), robbing ships and raiding factories. There were not enough patrol boats and it became a hunting ground for pirates.

Pirates are still a hazard for shipping in some areas. 

Pirate Hunters: The Straits of Malacca were known for pirates and buccaneers - ships and crews were lost or 'taxed' of everything - until Lady (Baroness) Burnett-Coutts at her own expense set up two naval ships to patrol. Commanded by Harry Keppel and James Brooke, these ships made this vital trading lane very safe. For helping with getting rid of pirates and rebels,  the Sultan of Brunei made James the Rajah (King) of an area of Borneo, Sarawak. The title Rajah of Sarawak passed to his nephew Sir Charles Brookes who continued to fight pirates, stop slavery and stop head-hunting. Keppel in late life became Admiral of the fleet. Cassandra Pybus' excellent book White Rajah, a Dynastic Intrigue tells the fabulous story of the Brookes in Sarawak.

Ships were well prepared against pirates and helped each other, usually travelling in convoy, at times with an armed escort as most countries had patrolling gun boats along the trade routes. Australian waters were some of the world's safest. 





~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 



Telling it how it is, you miserable piece of rat poop.... Colonel William Pitt Robbins... 

who, with Colonel Scobie, Colonel Atkinson & Major Grant came to Australia from India in 1857 and stayed some months into 1858 to buy horses for the heavy dragoon guards and artillery horses. Colonel Robbins made a big impact here - he told everyone exactly what he thought of second rate horses and those who try to sell them!

This story is an indication of how haphazard the trade still was - thousands of horses were sent to India and elsewhere since the early 1800's but greedy dealers such as the notorious Edward and James Lord (Tas) and John MacArthur (NSW), army men themselves (British) before becoming ruthless entrepreneurs, looked on it as a way to get rid of rubbish at a big profit. Lord also enclosed false pedigrees with his sorry horses and named various races they'd won - races which didn't exist. Both learnt the hard way but gave us a bad reputation for a brief time. They too finally sent quality away once the scandal was exposed.

Sending some military men to act as army buyers was wise. Also routine - throughout our horse trade other countries sent their own men until they realised our traders, once established, were as good if not better and simply left it to them.

They toured NSW, Victoria, W.A. and Tasmania. In Port Jackson (now Sydney) Robbins - Indian Army Remount Agent to the Australian Colonies - chartered 4 ships. One ship carrying 200 was at that time the biggest amount of horses on one ship leaving that port. Robbins sent 547 horses to Calcutta, Scobie sent 628 horses to Bombay from Port Jackson. From Melbourne Robbins sent 476 horses to Calcutta on the Europa, Caribou, Pericles, Reinhard and Siam; the horses chosen by Watson and Hewitt, all top class. Horses shipped from the Swan River and Hobart Town made their horse numbers up to 2,200 horses sent to India.

Some of the chartered ships were clippers but at least two were iron built screw steamers, early steamships. The clipper Chesterholme arrived from England, she took horses for Robbins in Hobart.


Sailing to Calcutta, she was lost on the way in Torres Strait, hitting a reef and becoming aground there. Torres Strait was the ships graveyard in those days. The horses, although set loose, stood on the reef up to their bellies in water, it's thought until they perished. Sixty were seen by a passing ship there (the Shamrock) that could not get close enough to rescue them. There had been 120 horses. The men made it to Booby Island in their life-boat, an excellent vessel, where a passing ship rescued them.  They left their lifeboat, salt meat and hogsheads of water on the island for future wrecked sailors. Canoe loads of natives were plundering the wreck of Chesterholme soon after they left it. It is an ancient right of salvage. One canoe kindly paddled over to the Shamrock to tell them the crew had left in the lifeboat. One can only wonder if any horses managed to swim to land. 

Colonel Robbins caused much consternation here as he was very fussy and rejected 90% of horses showed him. He also rejected almost all of a gift of 100 police horses the NSW government made - and told them what he thought of their rubbish! He was angry as he'd had a close call in the Indian Mutiny just before he sailed to Australia - mutineers killed every single horse on his own stud. He was grieving, and his fury needed an outlet.

Colonel Atkinson was more sensible, he saw the need for a depot, as when a ship needed filling they must take what was to hand, when a week after sailing far better horses may be brought to sales. It was a matter of being able to access large numbers of good horses quickly. 

Despite being scathing Robbins did a lot of good in making breeders and buyers realise India only wanted the best. Rubbish would not sell. Afraid of nothing, let alone speaking his mind, he also highlighted the corrupt state of our racing industry back then, putting his disgust into writing.

Colonel Atkinson suggested a Remount Depot be set up in Port Jackson (Sydney) by the Indian government to facilitate the shipping away of horses, sales, and handling prior to shipping. Captain Apperley had made the same suggestion 14 years earlier, and had set up a temporary depot at Bungarabee, 20 odd miles from Sydney with the drug lords, the East India Company; he pleaded with them to no avail to make a permanent depot when they shut that one down. Apperley kicked the horse trade off in a big way, scores of ships sending horses to India in the 1840's. It was remiss of the NSW government to have missed the opportunity of setting up a decent depot for India (two inadequate ones were made). He was a good man with remounts as he'd been remount agent in the Cape colony, resulting in a great market for Cape horses to India.

Colonel Robbins had raced horses in India for 21 years - after all Calcutta was considered the finest racing in the world and established a long time, and the game was clean. He tried racing horses here and was shocked it was a dirty game. Racing was a rort here for a long time. It's thought his outrage at being diddled at the track made him condemn every Australian horse he saw, ferociously. One can hardly blame him! He sold his first racehorses bought here, but soon bought more and raced them - it appears racing either got cleaned up quickly, or his horses were good uns - he enjoyed some wins before he left.

Robbins and Scobie left everyone depressed about their condemnation of a lot of horses they saw, the newspapers were shocked, but it put breeders on the right track and showed what excellent money was available for the right types - the officers paid handsomely for quality - spending over 100,000 pounds - a fortune. It made people realise there was an excellent living to be made if one was honest and supplied good horses.

Robbins submitted a report on return for the Imperial forces, sent to our government too, which said Australia was the best place in the world outside England for horse raising - and praised our horses in this document - all was forgiven! In fact, he'd fallen in love with Australia. It was a horse mad place, and he was horse mad too.

The result of all this was that lacking suitable depots, the need for middle men - buyers for India - was apparent. They could source horses from all over the place before the shipping season - Australia being too vast for an army man or three to try and get to remote breeding stations, and horses back to a port. Traders could select the horses and arrange handling and shipping. 

Shipping agents had been advertising empty ships waiting for a cargo of horses to take to India - all that was missing were professional horse traders. Soon they jumped into gear. On arrival in India, the horses were sent to the excellent remount depots there, for sale. 

Horse trading began in a giant way - the market was insatiable. 

Horse traders only got paid on delivery which weeded out the bad eggs - as did their support network. They needed to make and keep a good reputation. Before long our horse buyers got top reputations throughout the world for their honesty and supply of quality horses to private people, businesses, governments, coaching firms, tram companies, delivery companies, fire departments, police departments, the racing world and the biggest trade - armies. 

Colonel Robbins' ascerbic manner did much good. As it transpired he liked Australia so much he returned here to live and got into the Melbourne racing scene. It's thought racing benefited from his forthright and honest manner, it was becoming a far cleaner game at that stage, and quickly. He also sent a shipload of blood horses to India but it was lost with all on board, horses too, en route. 

Sadly, just as he began an enjoyable retirement, Robbins died in 1862 at St Kilda, Melbourne, of an 'abcess of the liver,' aged only 53. He'd been sick only a week. Hugely respected with many friends, he was given a full military funeral and his favorite charger, boots reversed, was led behind his coffin, which was on a carriage pulled by six black horses in full regalia, black plumes and trappings, and attended by several regiments and a huge entourage of mourners in private carriages. A good horseman seen out in style, who did much to put our horse trade into order.



~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::



Colonel Williams... In 1884 the Director of the Remount Service in India, Colonel Williams, came to Australia and travelled about extensively looking at Waler breeding. He looked throughout South Australia - escorted by George Goyder, the famous Surveyor-General; also Victoria, NSW and lastly Port Darwin. He'd wanted to go to Queensland but time ran out, however he wrote a letter to the Queenslander apologising and encouraging horse breeding for the army in India.  

The Colonel stressed the value of shipping horses to India, particularly praising our good gun horses (artillery) and told how the government was doing all they could to help, in Calcutta a remount depot with 800 loose boxes was in place so horses could go straight there from the ship. Fodder was stocked, everything was done to help look after and sell the horses with the smallest cost possible for stabling, feeding etc to the horse traders. 

By then traders had worked out a good shipping plan - shipping lines were only paid per head on horses which arrived at their destination alive.  Not all accepted these terms, but good firms did, it became standard during the 1860's. It gave skippers an incentive to sail a ship sweetly for steadiness, carry ample water, and co-operate with horsemen for best care. 



~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::






The Boveric adventure...



Boveric 
photo Sydney Morning Herald 9th May 1902. 


Some trips were eventful, despite motors making shipping more reliable than sail. The Boveric is a good tale of the times. An amazing feat of seamanship.

In 1901 the steamer Boveric which was a reasonable sized steamer - some 3,965 tons, well built for toting big loads in heavy seas - with 965 horses shipped at Sydney, Newcastle and Melbourne set off for Durban, South Africa. The horses were for the Boer War, a private consignment of quality horses that would sell like hot cakes, horses being in huge demand.

It was the largest number of horses to be shipped in one load at that time. She took 65 stockmen. The horses were sent by experienced trader Donald McInnes with his brother Allan, an excellent horseman, travelling with them on the ship. Allan had been sending horses from the eastern states to Western Australia for seven years. He'd spent the past three years also sending them to his brother Donald in South Africa, but Don was now back in Australia and had arranged this load himself.

Captain Lewis A. Leslie had been in command on the Boveric for a few trips. She couldn't have had a better master. The usual stow-aways were found - thirteen on this trip. As Boveric was considered "a lucky ship" this number didn't worry anyone, nonetheless, seamen are superstitious.

Ten days out of Durban the ship shuddered - disaster - Boveric lost her propellor. That left her helpless. When it happened she was 30.4 degrees south and 96.23 degrees east - a thousand miles from anywhere. She drifted. 

They made makeshift sails and attached them to the derricks - she was north of the usual trade route - outward ships went in a higher latitude to inward ships, and she'd gone higher still. No other ships were on her route. 

As she ran under her jury rig when a breeze finally came she'd make a couple of hundred miles, then it would go dead calm again, currents and swell would carry her back north. They kept busy making more sails. The Captain was worried they'd get into the trades and be carried still further from any landfall. Several times they re-crossed their own track, desperately trying to go south west but being taken north. 

They made a mainsail, topsail and foresail, and kept adding more.

She remained stable so the horses had a smooth time of it, even in big swells. Every now and then the Captain dropped buoys overboard, attached to which were bottles containing pieces of paper with her position at the time, and the need for help. 

A man jumped overboard when they were first adrift, to swim for help, others prepared to follow but sharks gathered and he was quickly brought back on board. They decided against the idea. Land was out of sight. 

After eight days of drifting the Captain met with his officers, then called for volunteers to take the life-boat for help. She would be set up with sail and supplies. All men volunteered, making the Captain very proud of his crew and the horsemen. He chose the Chief Officer Henry Hayman, the Second Officer W. McCarthy and two AB's, H. Dry and T. Timmins. 

The little crew of four set off with Captain Leslie's blessing, facing one of the world's longest stretches of ocean, all the way back to Australia. 

After 27 days and 1,500 miles of sailing - perhaps the longest trip in a small boat for rescue ever -  the brave little crew of the lifeboat were picked up off the coast off Fremantle by the Adelaide S.S. Co.'s steamer Willyama. The alert for rescue of Boveric went out. 

News went out to all concerned, and Donald McInnes, then living in Gloucester NSW, hurried over to Fremantle to meet the lifeboat crew.

The Kilburn went to look, and ships the Age at Port Pirie and Tagliaferro at Albany were chartered by the insurance company to search and reported to Fremantle. But they did not leave port - signals came through from Rottnest Island signalling station. Two ships were seen and one looked like the Boveric.

Rescue was underway after 37 days adrift. And that was after a month already at sea. 

The Narrung (variously spelled Nerrung, Nerang etc), of Lund's Blue Anchor Line, a steel screw steamer built at Sunderland of a hefty 5,078 tons, was taking 190 passengers to England for the coronation of Edward VII (who rode a Waler, his favorite horse). She had a ballast of coal. She sighted the Boveric's night light and distress signals - Boveric set massive electric lights at her masthead nightly - running the motors to power them, tricky when the tailshaft was busted and using her coal up.  Narrung like all ships leaving Fremantle knew the Boveric was overdue in Durban and feared lost. Ships leaving Australia and Durban had been alerted to look for the lost ship, some altering their course to search en route.

Narrung came to see what was wrong with this steamer showing distress lights. She stood by till dawn then came alongside. Although Boveric had made a lot of sail, she was still very slow, horse feed, already rationed, would run out before she could get anywhere - she needed help. Captain Bond of the Narrung agreed to to help. He was pleased when his passengers approved.

The chief engineer of Boveric, W. Moore, said everyone was hugely excited when the Narrung came alongside. Every night they'd looked out for other ships, only seeing stars, in their imagination at times hoping they were ships. No other ship had been spoken at all. Thirty six days had passed since her prop was lost -  they were naturally worried. Lots of cheers went up.

Narrung, commanded by Captain A.W. Bond R.N.R., kindly took the Boveric in tow at 8 a.m. but the cables carried away. They re-organised and tried again at noon - success. Narrung towed her back to Fremantle. The weather stayed fair. Captain Bond reported his passengers stayed in good spirits despite being taken back to W.A after several days out and the prospect of missing the coronation. The Boveric was 870 miles from Fremantle when picked up, and it took 5 days to tow her in.

52 horses had been lost, chiefly to pneumonia due to inactivity - but the others were in surprisingly good condition - a testament to the Captain, Allan McInnes, and all on board. 

Despite it being pre dawn as the ships passed Rottnest and the signal was sent, the pilot went straight out to them. Captain Leslie was much respected in Fremantle, having been to Western Australia a few times.  They got into Gage Roads about 10 am. While still in Gage Roads, the shipping channel at Fremantle, several tugs went out to greet the two ships and guide them in - and a launch with Howard Smith line reps, agents for the Narrung - and Mr. McCarthy and Mr. Hayman from the lifeboat were on the launch, immediately recognised by the men aboard the big Boveric, who all cheered as they came alongside. They soon climbed aboard. 

Ships leaving Fremantle hoisted' Congratulations' signals, and Captain Leslie hoisted 'Thank You. Well Done.' (referring to Narrung). 

On arrival at Victoria Quay in Fremantle a huge crowd cheered madly as the ships docked. Fremantle, a seafaring community, had turned out. Cheers went up for the crews. 


Captain Lewis Leslie. 
Photo taken in 1899, the year before the Boveric voyage. 
Source:The Australasian newspaper.

The Captain was a man of few words but praised the effort of his men. In later years many of the crew told how it was the Captain, coming among them with quiet encouragement, that kept their spirits up when it looked as if help may never arrive.

Everyone watched the horses come off - relieved they were in excellent condition and good spirits, although stiff from standing so long and unsteady on their sea legs as they came ashore. It was suggested the men caring for them be given medals by the Royal Humane Society, and those who went for help get medals for bravery. The newspapers were full of praise for the care they'd had.

The horses were rested in a sandy yard at the docks where they could at last lie down, they all enjoyed a jolly good roll then went to nearby agistment as the ship was repaired. Donald McInnes was overjoyed about the horses condition, and sent telegrams of to his friends, one being Mr. E.W. Sparke, the auctioneer of West Maitalnd, form whom Don had bought 240 horses that were on the Boveric. He said the horses had arrived safely back in Fremantle in splendid condition. Allan did not sacrifice a single horse, they all got the same rationed feed, only the sick ones died - it had been nine weeks after all - an amazingly small loss for the conditions.

When the rescue ship Narrung shortly after resumed her journey to South Africa then London, she was heartily cheered once more and seen off by a large crowd gathered to bid her bon voyage and thank you. Boveric and Narrung's crews both cheered each other. She piled on steam to try and make it for the coronation and was helped by fortune smiling on her. Edward needed an operation - the coronation was delayed. Narrung got there in perfect time. The magnificent procession of state of tens of thousands of soldiers gladdened their hearts to see Walers marching along, just like the ones they so recently rescued.


Coronation Procession - many Australian horses were with British and colonial troops. 
source and more pics

Meanwhile in Fremantle the story with a happy ending was taken to the hearts of the seafaring community. A meeting was held in the Fremantle Town Hall in June 1902, a fortnight after they got back. The Mayor Mr. L. Alexander and VIPS all gave speeches about the bravery of the Captain, lifeboat crew and all on board. Telegrams were read out from the Premier and Governor, and the Governor sent 5 pounds and 5 shillings as a reward to the lifeboat crew. 

The lifeboat crew were each presented with a gold watch and chain and pendant, and a purse of sovereigns. The Captain was asked for a speech. He said sailors were not much good at words, he was proud of all on board and the life-boat crew, and the Boveric which handled splendidly, and he could not find words to thank Fremantle for their welcome and kindness. He was given three cheers and a standing ovation.

Further notes on Boveric's story...

The shipper was insured, so salvage costs for this trip which proved low, were covered. However the horse trader Donald McInnes, no doubt immensely relieved to see his brother safe, and proud of his management, had a problem. Only cargo lost was paid for - a fraction of the horses. The horses did not get sold as expected, so he had zero return. And now had a giant agistment bill. He refused to pay the shipper as the contract wasn't fulfilled - the horses weren't landed in Durban. 

The shipper was faced with re-loading and taking the horses to Durban to get paid, despite the war now being over. The horses couldn't be moved elsewhere by McInnes until agistment was paid. He said agistment should be paid by the shipping company. Stalemate. 

At Fremantle the new propellor was fitted. Once fixed, the Boveric crew started re-loading the horses but with peace declared in South Africa McInnes faced the strong possibility of no sale there, so tried to prevent them being re-loaded. It became a physical tussle - Allan McInnis and 16 of his men trying to stop the horses going back on board. They and the crew came to fisticuffs. Police were called. It ended up in court. While in court, the 913 horses ate merrily in expensive agistment paddocks and had a well deserved rest.

The case ended up at the Supreme Court, the shipping company wanting costs incurred by the horses before sailing. No-one could move the horses until agistment was paid. The shippers won in court, the horse traders had to pay agistment and pay the shippers. Horses did not need to go to Durban. 

The firm of McInnes and Fell shipped horses from eastern Australia to Western Australia and to South Africa. This was Allan McInnes' second trip with horses on the Boveric to Durban. He'd set her up to carry this enormous load, horses were on four decks including an orlop deck he had made. Wisely, he'd made sure there was plenty of water, and the ship had electric light throughout and piped water.

He was proud they survived nine weeks at sea with only 4 weeks feed carried, and so well. Despite suggestions he kill half the horses once it was apparent rescue was a remote chance, McInnes simply cut their rations down, refusing to sacrifice any; on 8 pounds of feed a day rations - bran and chaff - they thrived. The Captain supported his decision to save all the horses lives he could. McInnes had 10 days feed left on this ration system when they got back. He'd booked the Boveric for three more trips but the end of the war halted this enterprise. Plus the little matter of clearing up the court case!

McInnes praised the on board vet, Dr David Stranahan and the Boveric's skipper, Captain Leslie, for their great efforts in preserving the horses lives. The Captain had made sure his ship was well victualled and carried ample water too, and while the motors could run they could condense water; all they ran out for humans was "life's little luxuries" during their time adrift.

What happened to the horses after the court case one can only guess - no doubt they were sent on another ship overseas, to be sold to recover costs. There was a massive demand for horses. Donald journeyed home by steamer in June 1902. He went to Manila that year and set up a Horse Bazaar so perhaps they all went there.

Captain Leslie was born in England and went to sea at age 15 from Liverpool, in the days of clippers, and had incredible experience - a trusted officer and commander in famous shipping lines (not Navy) when the British took troops to wars in both north and south Africa. He went in to Egypt when the enemy had taken all navigation lights out, at night. He'd migrated to Australia in 1892 to work for the Howard Smith line and skippered several of her steamers. He married in Australia.


Post the horse incident, for those curious about this ship - a good look into the times... The Boveric, built in 1898 (or thereabouts ) in Aberdeen by Hall and Company, was a collier type freighter and mail ship. She carried horses too - she took a big load of horses to China in 1900 for the Boxer Rebellion as well as her 2 horse trips to the Boer War, and sheep and cattle to South Africa.

After the traumatic Durban trip however she went back to coal, phosphates, timber, general freight and mail, but only small numbers of livestock with other cargo -  luckily - as twice more she lost her propellor. Her luck held and she was found each time. 

Various Captains skippered her throughout her career, as Captain Leslie was transferred to the steamer Gabo and then made marine superintendant in Sydney by Howard Smith Company - a good promotion for this excellent navigator and sailor. He still did regular voyages as Captain of various company vessels and held the superintendant position until he retired, he still skippered many ships and went to London to oversee ship s being built for the company.

Boveric did the Pacific islands, Australia, New Zealand and North America run with various cargoes, often coal. In 1908 she had a collision off San Francisco but got back to port for repairs safely and lost only 3 days on her run to NZ and Sydney. 

In 1911 she ran onto a reef off Tonga and got stuck in coral. The Knight of St George turned up and gallantly tried to tow her off. Despite jettisoning her cargo and both ships gunning their engines this tow attempt only resulted in damaging the rescue ship. Poop decks were flattened etc. At last the Knight of St George set off and found a larger ship to tow Boveric off safely.  She was refloated and fixed, and went back trading, this time sent back on the run to South Africa. After that she was running to the Philippines and Pacific again.

When WW1 broke out she was in New York and immediately steamed back to Australia. Some steamers were taken over by Admiralty but Boveric was left to trade through the war. She was sent back on the run to North America. She continued this throughout the war. Australia lost many ships, men and some 200,000 tons of cargo to enemy action on these runs. Boveric made it through.In 1916 going across the Atlantic she heard two ships radioing at night they were sinking, one the crew was rescued by another ship. Boveric reported the calls and losses on return. In 1918 when her Captain married in Newcastle, he was reported as 'Captain Phillips of the Boveric' in newspapers.


In 1919 she was sold in London and her name changed to Cycle. A supertition holds that it's bad luck to change a ship's name, but nothing bothered Boveric. The Howard Smith line sent a new ship also called Cycle on her maiden run to Newcastle for coal in Australia in 1922, after she steamed out from London. She was far bigger than old Boveric. Old Boveric now Cycle remained in English hands and went on working as a freighter. She was finally broken up at Gothenburg in 1933, after a long and fortunate life and trading calmly through three wars - Boer, Boxer and a world war.


In 1924 Captain Leslie was reported retiring after 50 years of seafaring, and was leaving Sydney to visit his daughter in England. He was interviewed before he left. One hopes he had a long and happy retirement. 


~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::


Argus aground..

Running onto a reef with the Sultan of Johore aboard was not Argus' only adventure. In the notorious Torres Straits where at places even low tide meant danger, the Currie line steamer popular with horse traders and 2,792 tons, struck a coral reef.

It was 2 am and pitch black on a wild night. She was going full steam ahead at 11 knots so it was a fair whack. 

It was 24th of July, 1895, she was en route to Colombo, Madras and Calcutta.

She had a big load of 400 horses on board and some sheep. Argus carried many loads of horses over many years and was well known. It was a notorious reef called X reef, a mile and a half south of Somerset, a little settlement near the tip of Cape York. 

Her foc'sle and bulkhead was holed and water rushed in, and she listed. As horse feed was usually stowed forward, some was ruined.  The horses couldn't stand due to the lean and began to suffer. It was bad weather with big winds and seas. The tides there are long - it could be eight days until there was enough tide to help her off, if she was not too damaged by then. The Captain, E. Johnson, was being guided by the pilot Peebles when it happened. The pilot got off and went to send messages. Response was immediate. 

Argus was only a fraction out of her course, the beacon on the other end of the reef was too far off to be seen, as the pilot was on board when it happened it was really no-one's fault - she was only 200 yards from clear water. The Captain went off to send clear messages too - he thought she could be saved. Timber and cement was needed. 

The steamer Albatross was sent to her assistance but could not pull her off, nor was it safe to transfer horses. She brought timber and cement - hoping to block the holes as much as possible, as the rush of water was bursting the hatch covers off and they were at water level a lot of the time. 

Albatross reported horses dying daily and being thrown overboard. Many sharks began to circle. The horse ship Bucephalus passed and also tried to pull her off, breaking massive ropes in the attempt. The effort helped right her a bit - enough for the horses to be able to stand again. A great help. They improved quickly and stopped dying. Fast work with the timber and cement also stopped water going abaft which kept the horses dry at last.

Water came in and out as the tides rose and ebbed. Three women were in charge of the horses, and taken off the ship once she stranded, to Mr Jardine's house at Somerset with the pilot, to protect them from danger and seeing the horses suffering. Once it was apparent Argus could not be towed off they returned to care for the horses, hoping somehow they could be rescued. While Albatross was trying to get her off, the steamer Changsha was also sent to help with insurance men on board to assess her situation. She tried too - but could not get her off either, despite Argus jettisoning some of her coal ballast. Insurance advised taking out as much coal as possible, it was hoped Argus could be saved. If she could not be floated off at the high tide then schooners would take her horses - a difficult task. The big steamers could not get close enough to do this. Schooners might.

Reports on her situation were updated constantly in the news with daily reports, sent as telegrams from Thursday Island, often several in a day, put in order so it read like an exciting novel. 

Several racing men had gone with the horses, trader Dick McKenna was going but luckily changed his mind at the last minute. No humans were hurt or lost. Horse traders McKenna, Gove and Margrett had all shipped horses and ponies in the load, as well as the men on board, Cox, Fountain, Uphill and McEvoy who were mainly racehorse traders. 

Horses were the priority and the schooners Clare, Ethel and Wanganui went to the rescue of the animals soon as the news was heard, it being a two day sail for them. The ruined horse feed had been jettisoned but some was safe and dry. The horses were doing very well and being fussed over, daily updates on their condition being telegrammed as passing ships constantly checked on the Argus. Weather was still mostly wild, with the occasional calm few hours. The Captain and crew kept busy shovelling out ballast. Reports came of them getting a hundred tons out. Then two hundred. Then four hunded. Finally they got an amazing 700 tons out. It wasn't cold - on the contrary - sea winds and dashing seas stopped the horses getting too hot.

The horses were remounts plus a few racehorses and quality race ponies, an important load as many were orders - the racers were named, as were the ponies : gallopers Fortunatas (winner of the Newmarket Handicap); hurdlers Muscovite and Rushlight II; steeplechasers Malolo, Ito, Beekeeper, La Gloria, The Indian, Rink; gallopers Bezique, Unity, Thought, Postage, Auster, Goldsmith, Defamer, Pontage, Colchester, Swordbearer, Legacy, Kenilworth, Lord Lynne, a yearling filly by Trenton from Elsie, trotters Honor and Robin; ponies Fancy, Elsie, Tanakie, Coquette, Elfrida, Error, Locket, Devotion, Volley, Kotiro, Tramp and Violet.

Finally the big tide came in - Argus floated off the reef, 8.30 at night on 1st August 1895. She steamed ahead with her pumps going flat chat to Goode Island, signifigantly down by the head. Once there, divers checked her out and found no major structural damage apart from the holes, in a compartment shut off to keep water at one level.

Sadly, 16 horses had been lost (one before they got stranded). Considering the severity of the situation, not bad. The survivors were reported in splendid condition at Goode Island. Argus had been on the reef 7 days. But there was no horse feed, provisions or full repairs to be had on Goode Island. She had to stay there while two plates were put over her holes, divers could only work two hours a day due to strong tides. It was ten days before she could get underway. 


The Argus faced a long run to Colombo, with little horse and human feed as she was almost 3 weeks delayed and still leaking badly. Down at the head to a noticable degree, she set off with all pumps labouring mightily the whole way. She made it to Colombo - the animal feed ran out just before they arrived but it would have earlier if not for a decision made on the reef. As they were also carrying 96 sheep, it had been decided to sacrifice some sheep instead of horses. They were not wasted, the crew and horse handlers ate 56 sheep from the stranding to Colombo. She got re-provisioned at Colombo and went on to Calcutta.

The Rink, Defamer, La Gloria, Postage, Kotira (pony), and a colt, half-brother to Grenadier, were among those lost on the voyage. Auster, Goldsmith, Tramp (pony), Lord Lynn, a filly by Trenton, and Robin (trotter), all arrived well for new owner Lord William Beresford. Others were all landed sound and healthy after their trials. 
The  Argus was fully repaired and returned trading, being back in Australia within weeks.






~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 


Record number... In 1905 when a fleet of steamers took horses to the Russo-Japanese war, for the Japanese, the ship Everton Grange carried a world record for the times of 1,337 horses. She was a massive steamer of some 8,000 tons, at the time the largest ship to dock north of Sydney. She took her horses on at Bowen, Queensland and went via Hong Kong.


~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::



Shipping Lines. 
Worth a mention is the legendary Captain Archibald Currie, born in Saltcoats, Scotland in 1830. He moved to Australia, worked hard on ships and was a Captain by the young age of 22. He went on most major sea routes and became incredibly experienced, always studying his navigation keenly, known for being careful and thorough. He went shares in a ship which became a shipping line, eventually starting his own line - he specialised in shipping horses to India and had fine horse ships built.

Captain Archibald Currie
Commerical News and Shipping List, 23rd August 1910.

He'd done some salvage trips including King Island and a regular run across Bass Strait. Due to his lobbying the Currie lighthouse was put on King Island, which saved many lives.

Captain Currie was lauded here for personally doing a great deal to open up general trade with India; this trade benefitted both our countries. Taking horses over, he thought it silly to return ships empty thus loaded with goods, to return with a paying cargo.

He sold ships off as he grew older, the last few of the Currie line was sold to the British India Steam Navigation line in 1913, when the Captain retired, ill. He died in 1914 at his home, Pladda, in St Kilda, Melbourne. He'd married and had a fine family.



~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::

British India Steam Navigation Company... was an enormous shipping line, running 160 ships at it's height in 1922. Many carried horses from Australia, with the horse traders being described as their livliest passengers!


~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::



Ships...

The majority of ships listed did many trips with horses, over decades. Only the largest amount carried at one time is listed. 
All are horses leaving Australia ...being updated...


Notes for below - 'Load' - ship took horses to its utmost capacity but exact amount not given. 'Horses, no number' - ship took unspecified number horses but primarily other cargo.

Abbekerk, (steamer), 300 horses
Aberdeen, (steamer), deck-load of horses.
Active, (sail), 6 horses.
Admiral Boxer, (sail), 108 horses.
Admiral Napier (sail) 8 horses.
Age, (Howard Smith line steamer) load of horses.
Airlie (schooner) 60 horses.
Aki Maru, (steam) 21 horses.
Aladdin, (barque, 867 tons), 67 horses. 
Albion, (sail) 128 horses.
Albuera, (sail), 120 horses
Aldenham, (E. & A. line steamer), 38 horses.
Alesia/Alysia (steamer), 400 horses.
Allahabad, (barque 1185 tons), 153 horses. In 1876 taking 153 horses to Madras from Melbourne, she was caught in a bad cyclone and only nine of her horses survived.

Allanton (Houlder line steamer built in 1901 at Sunderland by Sunderland Shipping Company for owners McLaren & Mclaren; 2,775 tons, 360 ft length, beam 48 ft), 400 horses. Taking a load of horses and fodder for the Japanese to the Russo-Japanese war in 1904 she was seized as a prize by the Russian fleet based at Vladivostock. She was released when the Russians lost the war, their fleet also decimated, and returned to the horse run from Australia to India, as well as her NA run etc.

Allanshaw (1,588) tons, 210 horses.
Alligator (sail) load of horses.
Allumbah (steamer) load of horses.
Alrich (Norddeutscher Lloyd Line steam cargo liner, 6,692 tons empty) load of horses, no number.
Alua (steamer), load, no numbers
Alumbah, 180 horses.
Ameer (barque) 5 horses.
Amur (barque), 20 horses.
Amyone (sail, 1,300 tons) 125 horses.
Ann (barque 801 tons), 131 horses.
Anna Maria (barque 487 tons) 70 horses.
Annie Brown (sail), 17 horses.

Antagonist, 40 horses. wrecked in Torres Strait, crew saved, horses lost.
Antiope (iron clipper/barque, built by John Reid & Co., Glasgow, 1866, 1,443 tons), load of horses. She took horses to Madras regularly. She was sold to Russia then captured by the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese war, sold to South America and not cared for, then bought by NZ owners and given a new lease on life. She worked hard there finally catching fire which practically destroyed her in 1921; insurance company sold her as a hulk to Africa to carry sugar. A farewell article to this good old ship was published in the papers.

Antipodes, (sail), 60 horses.
Aparima, (steamer, Union Steam Company), load of horses.
Apelles, (clipper), 91 horses. 
Arabella, (clipper/barque, 488 tons), full load of horses, number not known.
Arafura, (E & A Line steamer), 14 horses.
Arawa, (steamer), 6 horses.
Arcturus, (Roosevelt line, steamer), 520 horses.
Argus, (Currie Line, liner), 500 horses
Ariel, (sail), load of horses.

Arratoon Apcar, (B.I. line steamer), 500 horses.
Assaye, (1,281 tons) load of horses.
Art Union (sail, 748 tons), load of horses.
Auchendale, 100 horses.
Augsburg, (German-Australian line steamer), 170 horses. In 1899 she was caught in a bad storm out of Sydney en route to Singapore and Colombo, 80 horses and ponies on the well deck were thrown about when waves poured in and stalls ripped from the bulwarks. 46 died. Another 90 aft were uninjured. The Captain had to face her into the storm for 60 hours before it blew out. She pulled into Brisbane for repairs and vet care.

August (steamer), 160 horses.
Australia (B.I. line steamer) load of horses.
Australian (E & M steamer) horses, numbers unknown
Australasian (steamer) load, no numbers

Bancoora (British India Line steamer, 3,000 tons) 425 horses.
Bandoeng (R.P. steamer) 73 horses.
Barcoo (Queensland Steam Shipping Company, 250 ft length 1504 tons) 70 horses. She was praised in the press when new in 1886 for her luxurious fit out, most saloons being marble-lined to be cool in the Queensland climate; electric lights throughout including the hold, a music saloon, fine wood fittings, handpainted tiles, a ladies room, and interestingly, a library consisting of 86 Bibles and 98 prayer books. She was the biggest ship to go up the Fitzroy in 1886.

Baud (Royal Dutch Packer Steamer Company, steamer) load of horses.
Bella Vista (barque) 50 horses. She was set up for horses and stock carrying and did many trips mostly Tas- NZ.

Bendigo (steamer), several horses.
Bengal (sail) 221 horses.
Ben Nevis (White Star Line, brig), 176 horses.
Berkshire (steamer) 256 horses.
Bessie (schooner), 71 horses.
Bezwada (British India Steam Navigation Co. steamer), 400 horses.
Bhundara (British India liner, 2,190 tons), 400 horses.
Birksgate, (steamer), 29 horses.

Bittern (schooner) 118 horses.
Blundell (sail) 80 horses.
Blythswood (1,607 tons), 240 horses.
Boolinda (steamer). 400 horses.
Booldana (B. I. S. N. Co. liner). 400 horses.
Bothwell Castle (Skinner's Castle Line steamer, net 1,052 tons gross 2542 tons, 310 ft length, steamship) She was a regular India horse ship. 331 horses.
Boveric (Howard Smith Co. steamer). 965 horses.
Breizazel (5,097 tons steamer) load, no number.

Britannia (3 masted steam-packet, paddle wheels. Built 1840 by Duncan in Greenlock, Scotland. 207 feet length, bean 34 feet, 1,154 carrying capacity tonnage.) 54 horses. Launceston to Calcutta 1849.


RMS Britannia. 
Source: wiki










 


Bridgetown, 71 horses  
British Peer (iron built clipper ship, 1229 tons register) load of horses.
British Trident (British American clipper 1,400 tons) 200 horses.
Briton (sail), 34 horses.
Brittomart (sail) 12 horses.
Bucephalus (Archibald Currie & Co. line Indian trader. Built by Palmer, Newcastle on Tyne, 1884 for the horse trade.  275 ft length, beam 35 feet, tonnage 1,195. Engines 180 hp. Speed 10 knots p.h. 40 men as crew). 300 horses.
Bulimba (B.I.S.N. Co. steamer registered 1,613 tons, gross 2,500 tons, 315 feet length, 38 feet beam. Name is Aboriginal for sunrise, sister ship of Waroonga, sunset, language area not given but eastern seaboard). 400 horses.
Bussorah Merchant (barque 550 tons) 95 horses.

Canara (B.I.S.N. Co. steamer) 450 horses
Canberra Maru (O.S.K. line steamer) 6,477 tons, 420 feet length) 23 horses.
Canda (British India line, freighter), 44 horses.
Cardigan Castle, load of horses, no number.
Caribou, 140 horses.

Carl, (brig) horses, no number. Dr James Patrick Murray (born and educated in Ireland) took cargo including horses, and passengers, over to Fiji in 1871 but his true purpose was evil - illegally hunting people for slaves. On this trip he went to many Pacific islands and captured a lot of men by foul means and subsequently murdered many of them when they fought for freedom. He turned Queen's evidence to get off although his crew were sentenced in the trial, in which he became known as Dr Judas  and reviled. Unpopular, Murray cleared out from Australia to settle in Fiji. Murray had been doctor to the great poet Adam Lindsay Gordon; said by Alexander Sutherland in 'Looking for Leichhardt,' who knew both, to be the reason for Gordon's suicide. Sutherland described Dr Murray as evil. On board was Dr Archibald Watson (later a Professor at Adelaide). They were apprehended by HMS Cossack after Murray confessed  to a British consul. Skipper of ship the Rifle which called at Fiji at the time, gave evidence of the immense grief of many people there caused by the abductions and murders and noted the irony of an American ship there letting cannon off for their freedom of Independence Day - it was a slaver. Watson skipped to Europe for a few years. British war ships such as Cossack patrolled for slavers and did catch some. This trip increased the public outcry about slaving, euphemistically called blackbirding here, or coyly referred to as indentured labour, to an uproar.

Carlton (steamer) full load.
Carmula (steamer), 50 horses.
Carpentaria (freighter), 45 horses.
Caspar (barque) 10 horses.
Cassel (Nord Deutcher Lloyd line steamer) 4 horses.
Castle Eden, 110 horses.
Catherine (sail), 52 horses.
Celtic King (steamer) 12 horses.

Centaur, (sail, 570 tons), 34 horses.
Chakrata (B.I. steamer) 300 horses.
Chanda (B.I.S.N. Co. steamer), 173 horses.
Changsha (China Navigation Co, steamer), 32 horses.
Charlie Palmer (barque, 567 tons, agents Weinholt & Co.,. owned by D. Weinholt; mainly an immigrant ship for English remittance people, one of the few thus with a good reputation), 120 horses in 1866 to Calcutta from Brisbane.
Charley (barque) load of horses.

Charmian (559 tons) load of horses.
Chemntiz (German-Australia - Deutsche-Australische - line. Steamer with topsail schooner sails. Built by A. Stephen & Sons, on the Clyde, Glascow, launched 1889, length 380 ft, beam 39ft, draught 29'9", tonnage 1745 register, more gross). 403 horses. She was not built for carrying horses, but did some big loads of them to India, usually some died on the way due to bad ventilation. On other trading trips she only carried a handful which travelled better.

Chesterholme (sail, 760 tons), 120 horses. Wrecked off Portlock Reef Qld., en route to India from Tasmania 1858. Crew rescued, horses lost.
Chindwara (B.I. steamer, 5,192 tons) 600 horses.
Chingtu (steamer), 32 horses.
Choice (brigantine) load of horses. With a full load of horses from Melbourne to Port Chalmers NZ in 1861 she had a bad trip of 3 weeks, on a run normally a week or less, all horses were lost.
Chollerton (Anglo-Australasian line, steamship). 350 horses.

Chrysolite, (clipper, 471 tons empty, 149'3" length, beam 26' 1", draught 27', built by Hall of Aberdeen in 1851) 155 horses.





The Chrysolite, a famous windjammer, broke the speed record from Aberdeeen to China on her first run. 

She took 155 horses to Bombay in 1866, 55 died on the way. This sort of loss, regardless of cause, resulted in ships being paid for horses landed alive only - a standard clause by 1867. 

Ships quickly improved conditions with better ventilation etc.

Shipbuilder Alexander Hall invented the famous clipper bow and clipper style of ship - clippers were known for their speed on the tea run from China and wool run from Australia, conveniently speedy for emmigrants too. Photo: Wiki

Chupra (B.I.S.N. line steamer 5865 tons register), 600 horses.
Chyebassa, (steamer) 35 horses.
Cingalese, (sail) 150 horses.
Citadel, (sail), 48 horses.
City of Baroda, (B.I. line steamer) 235 horses.
City of Lincoln, (steamer) 700 horses.
Clarendon (brig, 153 tons), 14 horses.
Claverton, (steamer) 300 horses.
Clifton (sail, 380 tons), 47 horses.
Clitus, (A. Currie and Co.'s steamer, 1,588 tons) 386 horses; a long serving horse ship.
Cloncurry, (B.L. Co. steamer), 350 horses.
Clutha (1,060 tons), 91 horses.
Colaba (B.I.S.N. Co. steamer) 800 horses.

Colonial (steamer). 10. In 1907 en route from Sydney to Durban and London, her number one hold caught fire, with the fire raging she pulled into Fremantle and it was extinguished. All stock and people ok, she soon resumed her voyage.
Columbian (barque) 4 horses. In 1845 taking 4 horses and cargo to Singapore from Sydney she hit a reef in the Strait of Gaspar. Horses set free, thought to have swum to nearby landfall. Ship sank. People into lifeboats, headed to Gaspar Island. Saw Malay praus there that looked like pirate boats so turned and headed to Singapore. It took 11 days but all arrived safely. Captain Wakem was highly praised for his care provisioning the lifeboats. 

Comet (schooner), 30 horses.
Commonwealth (iron Clyde built clipper), load of horses.
Connaught Ranger (1,153 tons), 210 horses.
Constant (barque 535 tons) load of horses.
Conway (sail) load of horses.
Cooeyanna (steamer), 166 horses.
Coromandel (barque, 639 tons). 80 horses.
Cosmopolite, (brig), 40 horses.
County of Ayr, (barque), 50 horses.
Courtfield, (steamer), 1,000 horses.

Craig Var (steamer) 572 horses. In 1910 she took her own pilot, appointed by shippers Lane and Dawson, through Torres Strait. This created a flurry of indignant telegrams with the Torres Straits Pilots' Assoc.; a monopoly. Capt Moore, the pilot, had much experience, having been on this trip many times. He took the Craig Var through perfectly and created a precedent. It saved a lot of time and expense.

Creole, (brigantine, 131 tons) wrecked 1863 en route Launceston to Dunedin, at Waterhouse Island not far from Tasmania, in bad storm; 31 people being passengers, grooms and crew, 13 cart horses, sheep, cattle, cargo all lost.
Crown City, (motor ship, Roosevelt line), 364 horses. 
Cumberland, (barque) 41 horses.

Damascus, (steamer), 400 horses.
Dongola (steamer) 56 horses

Darius, (Currie line steamer), 460 horses. In 1893 among a big load she carried 4 horses ordered by the Governor of Madras. In 1899 this much loved horse ship carrying 450 horses to India  lost her propeller.  A story like the Boverics. She was adrift in hot conditions - not in shipping lanes; the skipper was worried she may never be found. Another steamer, Perthshire, had drifted 52 days before being found - although in shipping lanes between Australia and New Zealand. A lifeboat was sent off with a volunteer crew of the second officer, two passengers and five of the crew to sail 400 miles to Padang, Sumatra, to raise the alarm for rescue. This was a notorious pirate area.  After nine days Darius drifted into shipping lanes and thankfully was seen, the steamer Gulf of Ancud came to her rescue and towed her 942 miles to Colombo for repairs. The horses all survived the ordeal in 'splendid condition'. Darius was a horse ship with condensors to make fresh water, great ventilation, pressure hoses and walkways. Rob Baldock's son was aboard in charge of some of the horses. Kerouse and Madden had a lot on board. The horses were remounts, jumpers, hacks, polo ponies, cobs, and a few valuable raceorses. No sooner were they landed in Colombo enquiries were made about the lifeboat crew. No news - everyone was worried. Then within a week wonderful news - they made it to Padang and were safe.

Derwent Hunter, (barque), 70 horses (Hobart Dunedin 1862). Many such trips.
Devonshire (sail), 33 horses.
Dharwar, (Swedish ship, sail, 1,300 tons), 59 horses. In 1871 taking 59 horses to India, 57 died during a bad cyclone. All had been shipped by one man, probably the breeder.
Diana (321 tons), 8 horses.
Dilbhur (clipper, 1308 tons), 134 horses. She was roomy 'tween decks and well ventilated, a good horse ship.
Dongola (freighter), 56 horses.
Dorset (steamer), 420 horses.
Dragon (American-built barque, 242 tons), horses, no number.
Drayton Grange (Houlder Line, steamer), 800 horses
Duchess of Kent (barque. 343 tons) 23 horses.
Duchess of Northumberland (sail) load of horses.
Dudbrook (barque) 78 horses. In 1851 she was praised as a superior ship for horses, having roomy 'tween decks (almost 8 feet head room) scuttles, ventilators, foul air escapes, and excellent passenger accom. etc
Dunera (B.I.S.N. steamer) 200 horses.
Duke of Argyll/Argyle. 350 horses.
Duke of Devonshire, (2,021 tons) load of horses.
Duke of Newcastle (sail) 100 horses.

Eagle (barque 350 tons) load of horses.
Eagle (barque 434 tons) 70 horses
Eagles - there were 2 schooners named Eagle, one of 117 tons, another schooner of 108 tons which carried 16 horses; also small steam packet of 150 tons and 2 barques named Eagle as above - all carried horses in the same era 1840's & 50's, the two barques to India, others coastal only. 

Eastern (liner), 57 horses.
Eaton Hall (iron clipper), 140 horses.
Ebenezer (barquentine), 20 horses.
Echunga (Adelaide Steamship Co. steamer), load of horses.
Eddystone (steamer), 40 horses.
Elaine (steamer), 60 horses.
Eleanor Lancaster (sail), load of horses.
Elizabeth (sail), 20 horses.
Elizabeth and Henry (barque), 104 horses.
Eliza Blanche (brig), 40 horses.
Eliza Goddard, 77 horses.
Ellora (1,748 tons, Blyth and Co., horse shippers, bought and converted her from steam to sail - clipper with yards, tops'ls, gallants - she carried over 7,000 feet canvas), 256 horses.

Emerald Isle (sail, 501 tons) load of horses.
Emma Prescott (barque) 40 horses (Hobart Dunedin 1862)
Emma Sherrit, horses, no number.
Envoy, (sail), 31 horses.
Equestrian (barque, 801 tons), 110 horses.
Era (Howard Smith line steamer, sister ship of Time and Age, 299 feet long, 38ft beam, 21ft draught, register 1550 tons, gross 2378 tons; steel hull, built in Liverpool, launched 1888, small masts, monkey poop), load of horses.
Essen (German Australian Steamship Company, steamer ) 120 horses.
Eva Joshua (sail) 22 horses.
Everton Grange (Houlder Bros. line steamer, 8,000 tons) 1,337 horses.
Europa (1,000 tons) 132 horses.
Euryalus (steamer, 3576 tons). 250 horses.

Fanny Fisher (Clipper - barque. Australian built in 1847 by John Nicholson, Manning River, N.S.W. for Henry Fisher, 238 tons). She was a fast clipper, e.g. Adelaide - Mauritius 33 days, Sydney-Mauritius 39 days. Many times she took full loads of horses including from Cossack to Mauritius. No numbers.


the barque Fanny Fisher




















Fawn (barque), load of horses. In 1852 she took horses from Geelong to Calcutta. Most horses were discharged at Singapore, where she took on several new crew members. This new crew mutinied, killing all on board - Captain Rodgers, passengers including children, English groom Mr Elfrick, the horses. The women on board were raped then murdered. The mutineers sailed the ship to Penang, burned it, and escaped to Buas near Penang. They were soon caught, and tried.

Fazilka (British India Steam, steamer), 650 horses.
Federal (steamer), 41 horses.
Fifeshire (steamer) 500 horses
Fleda (barque, 323 tons), horses, no number.
Flensburg (German Australian Line, steamer) 18 horses.
Fleur de Maurice (barque, 317 tons), 97 horses.
Flinders (steamer) load of horses.
Flowerdale (centre-board schooner) 56 horses.
Forfarshire (sail) 106 horses.
Formosa (sail) 20 horses.

Fortunatus (Currie line steamer) 500 horses. Built for horse trade. Did many trips. In 1907 she ran full steam into an uncharted reef off Flores Island, while carrying 500 horses to India. It took 12 days and much cargo jettisoning to get free, steamers Fazilka and Tantalus had both tried to get her off unsuccessfully. Only 2 horses lost. Rest landed on Singapore. On return to Australia with no livestock she caught fire and was lost. Crew and passengers in open lifeboats all rescued by the Santhia after 4 days afloat. 

Frances Charlotte (sail), horses no number. 1837 Sydney- NZ Frowning Beauty (barque, 385 tons), 65 horses.
Fuetala Unita (steamer) 900 horses.
Fultala (B.I.S.N.steamer) 500 horses.
Futami Maru (steamer) load of horses.

Gaelic, 18 horses.
Gala (iron clipper) 60 horses.
Gameria (steamer) 133 horses.
Gamula (B.I.S.N. Co., steamer), load of horses.
Gandara (B.I.S.N. Co. freighter), 436 horses.
Ganges (steamer 1,490 net tons, 2256 gross) 305 horses. Wrecked on Cockburn Reef - actually an island - Cape Grenville, Qld. 1882 with 200 horses on board. 
Garland Grove (barque, 483 tons), load of horses.
Gazana (B.I. steamer) 11 horses.
Gipsy (French barque) 70 horses.

Goalpara (B.I.S.N. steamer) 53 horses.
Governor General (Sydney and Melbourne Co.'s steamer built in the USA 1848 by William Brown, named New Orleans, sold to Oz and renamed, refitted with new boilers etc. 200 feet long, draught 12 ft, beam 30 ft. Built to carry horses and troops to Mexico war.) horses, no number.
Gowanburn (steamer) 420 horses.
Gracchus (Currie line, steamer 6,500 tons empty, launched 1902.), 999 horses. Built for horse trade.





Loading horses at Sandridge Pier (Melbourne) onto the Gulf of St Vincent , 1883

Australasian Sketcher, State Library of Victoria

Gratitude (sail) load no number.
Gregory Apcar (B.I. line steamer), 520 horses.
Greyhound, (brig 231 tons), load of horses.
Gryfevale (steamer), 200 horses.
Gulf of Genoa. 400 horses.
Gulf of Lions/Lyons (steamer). 102 horses.
Gulf of Siam (steamer), 18 horses.
Gulf of St. Vincent (steamer), 360 horses.
Gulf of Venice, known as 'The Venice,' (schooner rigged iron screw steamer, built by W. Gray and Co., West Hartlepool, 331 ft length, 42 ft beam, 26 ft draught, register 1964 tons, gross 3022 tons), 268 horses.
Guthrie (steamer) 25 horses.

Hadington (iron clipper) 185 horses.
Hannah Maria (sail) load of horses.
Harburg (German-Australian line steamer) 63 horses. She took many loads over to Java.
Hargraves (schooner) 50 horses (Hobart Dunedin 1863).
Harkaway, 90 horses (1856 to Calcutta).
Harwich (sail) 13 horses.
Hauraki (steamer) 39 horses.
Henrietta (sail) 50 horses.
Henry Tanner (sail) 40 horses.
Himalaya, (sail), load of horses.
Hitashi Maru (steamer) 20 horses and 120 tons of horse-shoes (1915). A merchantman being used for troop transport in 1904 with Capt. Campbell she was attacked, tried to ram the enemy ship but was torpedoed while taking horses and troops, Japanese, to the Russo-Japanese war. Most troops and horses onboard saved.  
Houtman, (steamer), 56 horses.
Huntingdon, (screw steamer, 2,300 tons) 325 horses. 
Hydrabad, (sail, 696 tons), 118 horses. Lost in Torres Straits 1845, missed seeing beacon on Raine's Is. Cumberland Passage; all horses lost, humans saved ( lifeboats to Booby Is. thence Port Essington.).
Hymettus, (B.I. line, Currie line, liner) 712 horses.
Hyson, (steamer), 900 horses.

Iberia (steamer) horses, no numbers
Ikhona (steamer) load of horses
Illaroo (steamer, 3 horses.
Inchgreen (iron barquentine) load of horses.
India (barque 215 tons), 50 horses (1863 to Invercargill) many such trips.
India (P. & O. Co., steamer) 50 horses.
Indradeo (steamer) 210 horses.
Inkum (steamer) 930 horses
Indus Maru (steamer) 7 horses.
Integrity (sail, 220 tons) load of horses.
Iris, (3 masted schooner, 288 tons), 67 horses.
Irish Monarch,. (steamer) 1,000 horses.
Isabella, (barque) 43 horses.
Isabella Watson, (barque 514 tons) load of horses.
Islanda, (steamer) 500 horses.
Ismaila (B.I. line steamer) 34 horses.
Istamboul (steamer) 180 horses.
Itinda (B.I.S.N. Co. steamer) 121 horses.
Itaura (B.I.S.N. Co. steamer), 800 horses.
Itola (B. I.S.N. Co. line steamer) 300 horses.
Itonus (Currie line steamer, 450 feet long, 6538 tons register), 104 horses.
Itria (British India Company steamer) 500 horses.

James Nicol, 146 horses.
James Service (colonial owned barque, 441 tons) 75 horses.
Janet (2 masted schooner 211 tons built at Fremantle by James Storey in 1878, owned by horse trader Daniel Avery.), 100 horses. She did many trips overseas with horses before being wrecked on a reef near Rottnest island in 1887, no loss of life, returning from Colombo. 
Japanese (sail), 150 horses.
Jelunga (B.I.S.N. co steamer) load, no number.
Janus (A.Currie Co., line, later British India Steam Co., steam. Built by Palmer & Co., Jarrow-on-Tyne in 1910. 4824 gross tons; built specially for passengers, cargo and 600 horses - roomy stalls, fabulous ventilation, exercise walks and pressured water system to flush away waste), 750 horses.

Jesserie (steamer), 880 horses.
John Bagshaw (sail) load of horses.
Joshua, (sail), load of horses.
Jufuku Maru, horses, no number.
Jumna (steamer) 500 horses.
Juno (barque) 80 horses (Hobart Invercargill 1862). An early composite steamer of 760 tons also named Juno did a lot of coastal horse shipping (1848 era). Barque Juno did many trips to NZ with horses over years. 
Juste (French barque) horses, no number.

Kaikoura (B.I. steamer) load of horses Kalibia, (steamer), 100 horses.
Kamakura Maru, (steamer), horses, no number.
Kamano Maru, (Japanese mail steamer), load of horses.
Kamo Maru, (Royal Japanese Mail liner), 100 horses.
Kangaroo, (freighter), 30 horses.
Kassa, 35 horses.
Kate Tatham, (barque), 2 horses.
Kate Waters (barque,) 20 horses.
Kendal Castle (steamer) 51 horses.
Kent (F.S.N. line steamer) 142 horses.
Kiel (G.A. line steamer) 56 horses.
Keishon Maru (steamer) 73 horses.
Kirklee (steamer) 210 horses.
Kishon (barque) 20 horses.
Knight Templar (A.U.S.N. line steamer), 495 horses.
Kumanu Maru (steamer) 17 horses.
Kunajiri Maru (O.S.K. line steamer) 21 horses.
Kwongiang (India-China line steamer), 12 horses.

Lady Grey, (schooner), load of horses.
Lalpoora (B.I.S.N. steamer) load of horses.
Lanarkshire (steamer, 1439 tons) 224 horses.
Landaura (B.I.S.N. steamer) 320 horses.
Langton Grange (Houlder Line, steamer), 1,093 horses
Laughing Wave (brig 161 tons) 40 horses.
Laura Gertrude (American schooner) 69 horses.
Laurel (sail), 69 horses.
Lawsons (brig), 46 horses.
Le Maire/Lemaire/Lomaire (Royal Dutch Packet Company steamer 3,025 tons gross) 300 horses.
Leonie, 40 horses.
Leura (steamship), horses no number.
Levuka. 40 horses.
Lloyds, 81 horses.
Loch Torridon (4 masted barque-composite ship. 2,000 tons. Speedy clipper built by Messrs. Barclay, Curle and Co., of Whiteinch, Glascow. Melbourne-Calcutta 42 days. ), 320 horses. In 1882 one of the first to load straight from rail to ship via highsided gangways, these also made ramps from 'tween decks to main deck for horse exercise. The loading method saved 4 days work. She also broke the speed record on a wool run Sydney-London 81 days and Diego Ramiriz-the Lizard 14 days. Captain Pattman, he also brought 12 stallions out here on her, on her first run here. Raised money for charity on the ship by entertainments in port. etc etc. Fascinating man. Should be a book.

Lonarch. Load of horses (more than 20).
London (sail) horses no number,
Lord Ashley (steamer), 20 horses.
Lord Auckland (barque) 76 horses. The load sent to Calcutta in 1849 caused a lot of trouble - this was the load from Tasmania with false pedigrees. The deception was uncovered almost immediately in Calcutta, and an uproar went up. Back in Tasmania public outrage was even greater as India had been identified as a good market. 

Lord Dalhousie, 82 horses.
Lothringen (Nord Deutcher Lloyd line, then German-Australia line steamer, launched 1906, 5,008 tons), 20 horses (commercially). She did a good trade in general cargo from Australia from her maiden voyage, but was seized by the Commonwealth at the outbreak of WW1 when she docked in Melbourne, her Captain unaware war had broken out during his run from Bremen. She was given to the British India Company to take horses from India to England for the war; being fitted out with stalls at Darling Harbour, Sydney. When ready she sailed over with Thuringen, another seized trader.  Lothringen was renamed Moora.  details, 23 ships were seized by the Commonwealth

Lousia (barque) 150 horses.
Louise Roth (steamer, 3434 tons). 500 horses.
Lynton (steamer), 159 horses.

Macambo, (Burns Philp steamer) horses, no number.
Macassar, 18 horses.
Macquarie, (schooner 125 tons), 33 horses.
Madras Maru, (steamer), 7 horses .
Maetsuycker (K.P.M. line diesel liner, 4131 tons), 100 horses. Built for the Dutch, she was beautifully appointed as a passenger vessel and had 100 specially built stables for carrying horses. In WW2 she was a hospital ship for the North Americans, after the war she returned to trading.

Magnet (brig, 150 tons). In 1872 taking horses from Melbourne to Greymouth NZ she was caught in a bad storm and wrecked, all lost.
Mahomad Shah (barque 615 tons) 100 horses.
M
alolo (steamer) 39 horses.
Mambare (steamer) 3 horses.
Manapouri (steamer) 38 horses. On her maiden voyage in 1899 she took 38 horses to Fiji, landed 'in faultless condition.'

Maori, (barque) horses no number.
Maori King, (Federal line steamer) 182 horses.
Mandarin, 12 horses.
Margaret, (brig), horses, no number.
Margaret Eliza, (barque), horses, no number.
Marion, (sail), load of horses.

Marpesia, (sail), 120 horses.

Martha (brig 248 tons) 40 horses. This was an experimental load from Tasmania, of indifferent and extra good horses, various ages, to test the market. Honesty was paramount and the horses were sold exactly as described. All sold at far higher prices than expected, bone and breeding was wanted - quality - 4 to 5 years and broken were preferred. Luckily this ship arrived before the dud load under false pretences on another ship. The Martha shippers also proved that feeding dry feed as to be provided on board for some weeks before loading, prevented deaths seen at sea of horses taken off grass. This load landed in very good health. 

Marwarri (B.I. steamer, Burns Philp and Co.) 350 horses.
Mary Ann (sail) load of horses. On a trip to Madras with horses in 1853, 34 died on route, the rest landed poor.
Masala (freighter) 58 horses.
Masula (steamer), load no number.
May (barquentine) horses, no number.
Mauleeden (1,500  tons), 193 horses.
Melbourne Maru (O.S.K. line, motor freighter) 20 horses.
Melpomene (German barque/clipper, she started out fully rigged and was converted to barque rig, 1699 tons), 136 horses.


Melpomene, an iron Scottish built, German owned clipper, she took 164 horses to Calcutta from Newcastle in 1869. A speedy ship, she traded for many years to and from Australia, at times with horses, and survived some big cyclones; her Captains always furnishing the press with news from the high seas and other places, hugely popular reports with our remote continent. She also brought immigrants out. She was finally taken by the British in 1914, as a war prize, an old ship still trading.


Merkara, (R.M.S. steamer) 40 horses.
Mermaid, (sail), load of horses.
Mineric, (Howard Smith line steamer, 4713 tons register), 180 horses.
Minerva, (barque, 830 tons) 70 horses.
Mombassa, (BISN co steamer), 500 horses.
Monica, (1,300 tons), 200 horses.
Monarch, (steamer) full load of horses
Montana, (American clipper ship) 122 horses.
Morinda, (steamer), load of horses.
Mount Lebanon, (steamer), 110 horses.
Mount Sirion, (steamer), 205 horses.
Mountstuart Elphinstone, (barque 611 tons) 110 horses.
Mundra, (steamer) 56 horses.
Muttra, (BISN steamship) 450 horses.



Shipping for India, 1875
Photo: Illustrated Sydney News and New South Wales Agriculturalist and Grazier,
Nardana (British India line steamer) 700 horses.
Nagina (British India line steamer) 750 horses.
Nalgora (British India Line steamer) 700 horses.
Nankin (steamer, 7131 tons gross), 86 horses.
Naringa (steam), 600 horses.
Navarino (steamer) load of horses.
Navus (steamer) 23 horses.
Nellore (E. & A. steamer), 131 horses.
Nelson (steamer) 375.
Nemesis (steamer) load of horses.
Neptuna (steamer) 10 horses.
Neptune (sail) 74 horses
Nerbudda (steamer) horses no number
Ness (steamer) 585 horses.
Navasa (B.I. steamer) load of horses.
Newcomen (steamship). 400 horses.
New Guinea (steamer). 400 horses. In 1889 among a big load of cavalry horses were two especially ordered by General Luck, the Inspector General of Cavalry in India, and match carriage horses for the Rajah of Myore.

New Perseverance, 8 horses.
New Zealand, (steamer, Royal Packet Navigation Co., line) 75 horses.
Nieuw Holland (steamer) 40 horses.
Nieuw Zeeland (steamer) 45 horses.
Nikko Maru (5,600 tons, built by Mitsu Bishi, Nagasaki, steamer) load of horses.
Nimrod (barque) load of horses (Sydney - Bay of Islands 1840).
Niobe, 150 horses.
Nirpura (B.I. steamer) load of horses
Nirvana (steamer) 600 horses.
Norfolk (barque) 35 horses.
Norman Monarch (steamer) 34 horses.
North American (Blyth and Co., iron clipper, converted steamer), load of horses.
North America, load of horses.
Northern Monarch, load of horses (Geralton-Calcutta 1882)
Northumberland (sail) load of horses, Madras 1835 per Capt. Collins.
Nowshera (British India Company Steamship) 400 horses.
Nuddea (steamer) 815 horses.

Obra (B I line & Q A Co., steamer), 600 horses.
Oceana (steamer) 190 horses.
Okare/Okara (British India, steamer), 600 horses.
Okhla (steamer, 5288 tons), 98 horses.
Old Kensington, 250 horses.
Omar Pasha, (Aberdeen clipper, 1,100 tons), 122 horses.
Onda (steamer), 300 horses.
Onipenta (steamer) 314 horses.
Opotiki (schooner) horses, no number.
Op Ten Noort (steamer), 40 horses.
Orange Branch (turret steamer, sister ship of Vine Branch, built 1897 by Doxford, Sunderland. Australia-South Africa line, later Nautilus line, 334 ft length) 138 horses, in 1907 at Rockhampton she was the biggest steamer to visit there at that time. 
Ormara (B.I. steamer) load of horses.
Orna, (B.I. steamer), 400 horses.
Orida, (steamer) load of horses number not known (possibly 200)
Orient, (sail), wrecked in Torres Strait 1846 taking horses from Sydney to Calcutta.

Orient, (steamer, built 1879 Glascow by John Elder and Co.), 400 horses. At the time she was built she caused a lot of excitement being the biggest ship built then at Glascow. Built for the Australian trade she had hundreds of visitors a day when she arrived here, to see over the luxurious ship. She was also very fast.
Orissa, (BI steamer), 600 horses.
Orwell, (barque, 304 tons), 54 horses.

Ouda, (B.I. Line steamer) 200 horses.
Ovalau, (steamer), 40 horses.
Ovalan (steamer), 40 horses may be above ship, spelling error in news

Ozarda, (steamer), 117 horses. This load to India in 1920 was from W.A. for Steve Margrett who'd gone over at the invitation of the W.A. govt. Margrett was impressed with horses he saw in the Murchison and Geraldton areas and bought many, but found it hard to find shipping which would carry horses. The Ozarda only had space for 117 so many of his horses did not get shipped.

Palestine, (barque 427 tons), 20 horses.
Pam Flush, (sail) load of horses.
Paragon, (sail) load of horses. In 1852 she landed a load of horses from the Swan River, W.A. in very good condition in Madras which was reported on here, as an example; as others arriving at the same time unloaded skeletal horses, reported with disgust. It was proposed the trip from W.A. being shorter helped, but it was also superior on-board care.

Pathan (steamer), 300 horses.
Paz (steamship), 13 horses.
Pentakota (6,700 tons), 375 horses.
Percy Edwards (brigantne) 40 horses.
Pericles, 112 horses.
Persian (barque 350 tons) 49 horses.
Perthshire (steamer) 475 horses.
Pet (schooner, 95 tons), 35 horses.
Peterborough (1680 tons), 320 horses.

Phantom (brig, 157 tons), 24 horses. In 1869 laden with treasure en route from San Franscisco to Hong Kong, she struck on Prato Shoal in the China seas, about 300 miles S.S.E of Canton. She was lost but all crew got off in lifeboats, and got the 12 boxes of treasure off. They got to Statow (Shantou) but were attacked by pirates who took no life but took all the treasure, about 100,000 dollars... or so they said.

Phasis (sail, 1,490 tons) 265 horses.
Philip Oakden (barque 307 tons) load horses no number.
Picard (schooner) 16 horses.
Pirate (steamer 281 tons), 21 horses.
Port Caroline (steamer, Anglo-Australian line), 400 horses.
Port Jackson (steamer) 328 horses.
Port Phillip (steamer) 300 horses
Port Victoria (steamer) 200 horses.
Prairie (sail) 52 horses.
Prince Alfred (steamer), 20 horses. In 1860 steaming from Sydney to Nelson NZ she lost 20 horses in a bad storm.
Prinz Sigismund (steam, N.D.L. co.) 15 horses.
Prinz Waldemar (German mail steamer), 48 horses.
Pryde (brig) 35 horses (Hobart Dunedin 1861)

Queda (British India Steam Navigation Company ), 800 horses. specially built for horse trade.
Queen of the Seas (1,337 tons), load of horses.
Queen Louise (steamer, 3385 tons) 200 horses.
Querimba (British Steam Navigation Co.) - built especially for carrying horses - 800 horses.
Quiloa (B. I. S. N. Co.), built especially for carrying horses - 800 horses.


Racehorse (sail) 80 horses. 

Raipootana, (B.I. steamer) 70 horses.
Ranee (barque) 3 horses.
Ras Dara (Anglo-Australian line steamer built by Osbourne, Graeme and Co, Sunderland in 1900, length 351 feet, beam 48ft, draws 29ft), 250 horses. In 1901 taking 135 horses to Taku for Tientsin (Boxer rebellion) she was caught in a 3 day cyclone so bad she cut all power, wheelhouse smashed etc. 23 horses were lost. She was the last merchant man to leave that port as war broke out.
Reigate (steamer) 350 horses.
Reinhardt, load of horses.
Rialto, (barque, 311 tons), load of horses.
Richard D. Lyons, (Greek Liberty ship), 250 horses. In 1953 with 211 ponies aboard, mostly griffins for Bangkok, the ship was arrested in Fremantle. The Supreme Court writ was on behalf of the Western Australian Livestock Export Company. The ponies freight had not been paid - the crew argued the ponies should be arrested, not the ship. A Bangkok company had to pay freight before the ship could be moved.

Rio (sail) 19 horses.
Ripingham Grange (Houlder Bros. steamer) built for horse trade, 1085 horses.
Ripley (steamer) 315 horses.

River Mitta. 99 horses.
Rhundara(steamer), 400 horses.
Robert Morrison (barque 553 tons), 102 horses. In 1878 she took 192 horses to India but 55 died en route from inadequate ventilation. Government ships had been cutting decks out to provide ventilation but privateers had not; this sort of trip led to horses being carried as much as possible on deck, not below.
Robert Passenger, load of horses.
Roehampton (British steamer, 1,891 tons), 303 horses.
Roggeveen (Royal Dutch Steam Packet Company steamer) 200 horses.
Rollo (colonial owned iron clipper, 902 tons, A. Currie & Co.), 200 horses. Speedy ship of beautiful lines, did countless runs to Calcutta.
Romulus, (steamship), 28 horses.
Roscote, 8 horses.
Rotokino, (steamer), 8 horses.
Royal Consort, 97 horses.
Royal Saxon, (barque, 511 tons) 70 horses.
Royal Stuart, (sail), load of horses. She took horses to Madras 1852 from Sydney and they were landed in such poor condition it was said they'd never recover. She arrived at the same time as the Paragon which landed her horses in good condition.

Saladin (steamer, 250 ft length), 160 horses.
Salisbury, (sail, 1,094 tons), 160 horses.
Sangola, (British India steamer), 270 horses.
Santhia, (steamer), known as "The Horse Ship," 800 horses.

Sapphire, (barque, 749 tons) 60 horses. In 1859, taking horses from Port Curtis (Gladstone) - the first load from there - to Madras, she hit a reef in Torres Strait and was wrecked. Crew got off on lifeboats, horses all died on board. Some crew killed by natives. After 4 months of trials and finding another wrecked ship, the Marina, waterlogged but salvageable, the survivors made it back to Gladstone. Carl Schmalfuss, known as Charles Smallfoot, nephew of Ludwig Leichhardt, was in charge of the horses - tragically he was speared to death at Hammond Island. 

Sarah Scott (barque) 3 horses.
Satara (British-India co steamer), 300 horses.
Scindian (Sunderland built, fully rigged barque), 23 horses Fremantle to Calcutta 1850.
Scotia (sail, 800 tons), 17 horses. She had 17 good roomy stalls, ventilations and ports. 
Sealda (B.I. then A.U.S.N. Co. steamer) 1.200 horses. Built to carry 1,200 horses, with fabulous stalls and ventilation, much praised in the press for being an ideal horse ship, her maiden voyage was in 1902.

Sea Nymph (barque, 289 tons register) 69 horses. In 1868, an old ship, she was caught in a cyclone within sight of Port Louis; despite the Captain trying to get there speedily as the barometer had dropped dramatically, all horses on her deck were lost in the cyclone. She'd done the run many times and taken horses to several countries. 

Sea Ripple, (3 masted barquentine 196 tons), 26 horses.
Shirala, (B.I.S.N. Co. steamer), 800 horses.
Siam, (Royal Mail Ship, steamer), 92 horses.
Sirdhana (British Line steamer) 650 horses.
Sir George Seymour, 140 horses.
Sirsa (British India liner, steam) 500 horses.
Solingen (German Australian co., liner, steamship also schooner rigged, 366ft - 320 water line - beam 40ft, 2575 tons to carry 3,500 tons) 100 horses.
Somerset (steam) 3 horses (George Kiss to London 1919).
Southern Belle, 71 horses.
Southern Cross (steamer) 8 horses.
Southern Ocean (sail) 200 horses.
Spinaway (schooner, 345 tons), 28 horses.
Stag (sail). load of horses.

Starlight (sail) 102 horses. She took a load to Calcutta in January 1862 from Port Adelaide. Nine were lost en route but the rest landed in superb condition. They got good prices and were highly praised there. S. Phillips was in charge of them on the trip over. It was advised there to send horses in October for best prices.
Star of India, (clipper ship) 140 horses.
Star of Tasmania, (clipper) 31 horses.
Star Queen, (barque), 90 horses.
Stassfurt (steamer, German-Australia line) 30 horses.
Stratheden/Strathden, (barque), 70 horses. In 1843 she advertised that 3/4 of the shipping fee would be refunded for any horses landed in Madras in poor condition, or which died en route. This resulted in her having a full load booked. A good example of Captains actively seeking the horse trade.

St Vincent, (barque 629 tons), 80 horses.
Subahani (sail) load of horses.
Sumner, (barque 695 tons), 110 horses.

Sung Peng (steamer) 6 horses.
Surada (steamer), 750 horses.
Surrey (sail) 120 horses in 1869
(steamer Surrey took horses to war for us)
Susan, (brig) 20 horses.
Susana, (American freighter) 70 horses.
Susannah, (barque), 10 horses. Suva, (steamer), 2 horses.
Sydney Maru, (steamer) 160 horses.
Syren (sail) 6 horses.




 Illustrated Australian News 1882.

Taiyuan (China Navigation Co. steamer), 40 horses. 
Takada (British India liner. Built by A. Stephens and Sons Ltd., Glascow, 6949 tons, 430 feet long), 700 horses. A much loved ship, she was used as a hospital ship during WW1. Australian nursing sisters served on her, and she brought some of our soldiers home from England after the war, they'd had a tough war on the Western Front. She went back trading after the war.

Tacla, (sail) 7 horses.
Thames, load of horses.
Tanais (steamer), 3 horses.

Tanda (steamer), 170 horses. She carried a lot of horses over the years. In WW1 the people of Madras wanted to help the war effort, so collected funds and chartered her and fitted her out as hospital ship. Her name for the war was changed to Madras and she became famous. She carried the wounded from Africa and Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Vladivostock, many taken to India for treatment, some Australian nursing sisters served on her. She also brought some of our Light Horsemen home from Palestine after the war. After the war she got her old name back and resumed trading.

Tango Maru (N.Y. K. line, Japanese Royal Mail steamer), 19 horses.

Tartar (sail, 600 tons), 40 horses. This load went from WA over to Madras in late 1865, all arrived safely and in good oder. They had been sent by hopeful horse breeders in WA. However on reaching Madras the surf was raging and horses had to be lowered into small boats and landed through the surf. Twenty odd horses were landed with great difficulty, one dying in the process. A cyclone was setting in and all ships ordered immediately from port. The Tatar had to head to sea with her remaining 20 horses and battle the cyclone for four days, She was fortunate to survive as several of the ships which left with her were lost. The remaining horses were so battered by the storm, 14 died of injury. This calamity was very upsetting; it was strongly pointed out that horses needed to be in individual stalls, firmly tied in, rather than loose and sharing the hold, or loose in roomy boxes. A lot was learned.

Tasman (Royal Dutch Steam Packet Company steamer), 200 horses. She took ponies and horses on most runs. Dec 27th 1913 she ran onto Bramble Cay, a reef in Torres Strait and was badly holed and filled with 13 feet of water; she was carrying a full cargo including 70 ponies for Java from Townsville. Crew moved cargo forward to seal off holed compartment. Her sister ship Houtman went to the rescue and three others; the Inaho Maru managed to pull her off on 1st January 1914. Sheltering behind islands due to severe storms, she made it to Thursday Island pumping all the way. She got some repairs there, local Japanese were extremely hospitable to her crew and passengers. Most passengers went on by the Nissan Maru. It was one of the best saves of the times, four other ships were lost there. The sets (tidal waves) were so strong they put the Captain's reckoning out by 7 degrees, his navigating was right but the sets foiled him; the Nissan Maru on her way had to adjust 15 degrees to keep to a safe course.

Taviuni, (steamer,) 69 horses.
Tenasserim (barque, 228 tons) 40 horses.
Theophane, (1,531 tons), 144 horses.
Theresa, (barque 486 tons,) 92 horses.
Thessalus, load of horses no number
Thisbe, (frigate), load of horses.
Thomas Stevens, (sail), 204 horses.
Time, (Howard Smith line, steamer, launched 1890) 300 horses.
Tokyo Maru, (Osaka Shosen Kaisha line steamer), 15 horses.
Travancore, (barque) 82 horses.
Trinidad, (barque) 25 horses.
Troubadour, (sail), load of horses.
Tsien Tien, (barque) 50 horses.
Tsinan, (China Navigation Co, steamer, sister ship of Changsha, Chingtu and Taiyaun), 70 horses.
Tultala, (steamer), 509 horses.

Udstone (clipper, 1,695 tons) 270 horses. In 1874 she was caught in a cyclone just before arriving in Calcutta, 140 horses died of severe injury and heat (hatches battened). The crew and grooms were extremely distressed (gave accounts). One horse had jumped off the wharf while loading, despite small boats going in pursuit as it swam towards Williamstown, and at one stage catching it, the horse broke free and made it to shore in Melbourne to gallop off and escape this trip. It was the biggest load from Victoria at that time. 

Uganda (B.I.S.N. co steamer, 5,366 tons), 232 horses.
Ugina (B.I. steamer 5,870 tons) 331 horses.
Ujini (B.I. steamer), 500 horses.
Ula (B.I. line steamer) 232 horses.
Undaunted (screw steamer 1,100 tons) 170 horses.
Umaria (British India Line steamer) 600 horses.
Umballa (B.I. steamship) 225 horses.
Umenta  (British India line steamer) 122 horses.
Umpta (British India line), 362 horses.

Upada  (B.I. Company steer screw steamer, 5257 tons to carry 8,000 tons, built by A. and J. Inglis, Glascow in 1899, the first of a new fleet of steamers to run from Queensland; she started on the India run. Length 410 ft, beam 50.7 ft, draught 28.8 ft ), 550 horses. She did several big horse runs to India. In April 1915 she was taking a load of 550 remounts to India when an epidemic broke out among the horses, 150 died. Once reaching Madras flying the yellow flag (disease on board, human or stock) 13 more died and she was ordered from port to dispose of the carcasses at sea in case of infection. Yellow flag ships were isolated and not allowed to dock until cleared by authorities. Several ships nearby had their water on board tested in case they'd picked up germs; ship water was often made from seawater in steamer condensors. It was never known what the epidemic was despite post mortems but suspicions lay with contaminated water. She was cleared, the rest of the horses were landed and were fine.

Unicorn (barque 375 tons). Unknown number of horses (possibly 20).
Valala (steamer) 305 horses. 
Van Den Bosch (steamer) 64 horses.
Van Linshchoten (steamer), 41 horses.
Van Rees (steamer) 104 horses.
Van Spilbergen (Royal Dutch Steam Packet Company, steamer) 240 horses.
Victorean (steamer), 610 horses.
Victorious (tramp steamer), 10 horses.
Vimiera, 120 horses.

Vine Branch (turret steamer, Australia-South African line later Nautilus line, Sunderland built by Doxford 1896), 140 horses. She took horses to the Boer War 1901, despite going through extremely bad weather she landed every horse alive and well, all 140. She took horses elsewhere too e.g Manila. In 1917, a merchantman, she was sunk off Ireland by a German sub, all on board lost.

Virawa (B.I.S.N. co. steamer) 525 horses. In September 1891, a new ship, she went aground on Dugdale Reef off Qld with 525 horses including 5 ponies and 8 racehorses - she was rescued and all saved - ship, horses, crew.
Virdura (steamer) 500 horses.
Virginia (steamer, 4275 tons) 754 horses.
Von Overstraten (steamer from Java), 289 horses.

Waitemata (steamer) 13 horses.
Walter Morrice (barque 660 tons) 95 horses.
Wanata. 180 horses.
Wardha (British-India steamer) 430 horses.
Waroonga (A.U.S.N. line steamer) 233 horses.
Warora (B.I.S.N. Co. steamer) 600 horses.
War Spirit (sail) 140 horses

Warwick Edward, (steamer) 7 horses.
Waterlily, (sail) 30 horses.
Westminster, (barque, 610 tons), 26 horses Sydney-NZ 1840.
Whangate (Union Company steamer) 172 horses.
Wild Wave (brig 250 tons) 12 horses. She took horses, among other cargo, for decades to NZ, usually from Hobart, continuing to Chile.
William Denny (sail), 23 horses.
William Metcalfe (sail) load. in 1845 she landed her horses in India 'in wretched condition.'
Willyhad (steamer), load of horses.
Wimbleton (steamer) 250 horses.

Wonga Fell (steamer), 600 horses.
Woodlark, 27 horses
Woolloomooloo (steamer), 523 horses.
Worthington (sail) 20 horses.
Yarra, (schooner 121 tons), 35 horses, several trips Tas to NZ 1860's several sent on her by my gr gr grandpa Henry Thorp.
Yawata Maru, 140 horses.
Yen Ping, (steam) 35 horses.
Zephyr, (sail), 20 horses.
Zuleika, 80 horses.




~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 




barque - a modern photo put here to show the impressive sail area of these ships, off Adelaide



~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 

HM transport ships for Second Anglo-Boer War, WW1 & WW2...

good resource for ships for our army

listed as found... S.S. Cornwall,
Atlantian,
Omrah,
S.S.Weiwerea,
Manchester Port,
Sussex (1,000 horses),
Sophocles,
Morayshire (800 horses),
Banffshire,
Manchester Merchant 370 horses 1902  Boer war
Columbian 346 horses 1902 Boer war.
Custodian
Medic,
Ripingham Grange, Houlder Bros. line steamer built especially to carry horses, carried 1,085 horses in one shipment in June 1900 to Durban.
Nairnshire 750 horses 1901.
Castano 464 horses 1901.
Argus, 460 horses, 1901.
s.s. Surrey March 1900 750 horses to Boer war.
Sussex 517 horses 1901.
St Andrew 415 horses May 1902.
Victorean 1901 600 horses to Boer War.
Warhda (300) and Isianda (500) 1900 Boer War.
Norfolk F.S.N. steamer to Boer War 750 horses for Capt Hunt. 1900.
Chicago 103 horses 1901. Warrigal 140 artillery horses 1900. Maori King 170 horses 1900.
City of Lincoln horses Boer war 1901
Chindwarra, steamer, big load to India 1916.  S.S. MacCorqudale 570 horses 1915 to Egypt.
Moorinda, steamer, horses to Papua January 1915.
The Vine Branch and the Orange Branch, loads horses to Durban 1901 & 1902.
Euryalus, steamer, 2 trips to Boer war, April 1900 arrived S.A. with Victorian Bushmen and horses.. She also took 600 horses for the constabulary in 1902, a para-military outfit.
Ships went over to India constantly throughout WW1 and WW2 with horses. 

~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 

By the end of the trade it was hard to find a ship able to take horses, setting up stalls was often too inconvenient. Trader W.Woods in 1951 had to cancel an order for 200 horses for the Siam army, as he couldn't find a ship willing to take them. He was taking some to Hong Kong that year, and found a ship for those.

Some of 150 horses being loaded on the Naringa at Pinkenba, Brisbane, for India. She then went to Gladstone further up the Queensland coast and loaded another 500 head. 
The Telegraph, Brisbane, 1938.

shipping horses to India, 1889
wood engraving, State Library of Victoria


~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 





Buyers...
updating...

Andrews, W.
Ashton brothers, James, Bob, Geoff, Phillip. Goulburn, N.S.W.
Avery, Daniel James. Perth W.A.

Badman, Archie
Baldock, Robert G. Ellengowan Station, Clifton, Queensland.
Baldock, William Carey (S.A. then Melbourne).
Baldock, Christopher Godfrey (Port Elliot to Currawa, Windsor, Melbourne, to Bombay).
Baldock George, Melbourne.

Beasley, Frank. Emerald, Queensland.
Bell.
Brown.
Burgess, Jack and Bill.
Burke, T.J. Victoria.
Burke, M. Queensland.

Calder, E.
Cavanagh, James.
Christey, Fred.
Clark, George; worked for Ralli & Co. then manager for Hill & Co.
Clarke, Sir Rupert, Bart. Victoria
Codgrave.
Cooke, John. Melbourne.
Cosgrove.
Cotton, Alfred J. Queensland.
Crews, E.

Dalgety and Co.
Dawson, W.S. N.S.W.

Dallon, C. North Rockhampton.
Davies, J.L. Qld.
Davis, H.
Derham, Thomas Burge (Tom). Baybrook, Victoria.
Dickson, F.V., NSW.
Donald, D.T. Melbourne.
Donohue, John. Queensland.
Duclos, E.Melbourne.
Duval. John.A.

Enright, Jack. R., Maitland NSW.
Fanning, John Joseph (Jack).
Fountain, F.

Gascard, Jules.

Gascard Brothers (the sons of Jules).
Garling.
Gidney, Isaac, Charlie & Harry J. Melton, Melbourne,Benalla, Victoria (Harry in business with Derham). Isaac the father, Charlie (Isaac Charles jnr) and Harry (Henry John) the sons.

Gilder, Alfred & Richard. Piecefield, Muswellbrook, NSW.
Glance, Levi.
Glasscock, Alfred E. Toorak, Melbourne, Victoria.
Glasscock, Arthur.
Glasscock, Charles.
Gove, Julius. and C0. Fountain, Melbourne, Victoria.
Gregg, V.
Grunike, Julius.

Hall, Ivan. Liverpool Plains, N.S.W.
Harriot, jnr.
Harte, J. Queensland.
Hegerty Brothers, Henry and William. Queensland.
Henderson, Ian. Melbourne.
Henschke, A.G. Bookpurnong.
Herbert, Stan.

Howard, Mick.
Howell. Fred.
Hunter, R.A. N.S.W.
Hunter, R.J. Woodstock, Victoria.
Hurley, Henry (Harry). Gippsland Vic., also Sydney. N.S.W. Worked with Rugglesworth at times.


Inglis and Company.Ives, C.B. Oakden Hills.
Jenkinson, Robert. Victoria.
Jones, William A. and Co. Melbourne.
Kerouse, Edward. (sometimes spelled Krause, Krerouse Krcrouse - the last possibly the correct spelling) worked with Henry Madden.
Kiss, George G. West Maitland, then Sydney.
Kiss, John.

Lalor, James. Queensland.
Lalor, T. Western Australia.
Lamotte, Robert B.
Lane and Dawson (based in Sydney, shippers of horses from NSW & Qld early twentieth century mostly to Bombay for ppl such as R.G. Baldock; also sent horses to order bought by themselves - mostly remounts, some ponies, racehorses).
Lang, A.
Langwill, A., H. and J.
Learmonth, Thomas.
Little, J.
Lock, Phil.
Love, James Simpson. Townsville, Queensland.
Lyons, J. Pentridge, Victoria.

MacKeller, Harry. Partner with Smith, Harold. Sydney.Mackin, D.D. (with Madden).
Macklin, W.
Mackinnon, Hugh.
MacPherson, Ian, South Australia.
Madden, Henry (Sir). Travencore, Melbourne, Victoria.
Maiden, George and Morton, Alfred John (Jack). Partnership of two good, lifelong horse traders.
Margrett, Steven (Steve) 'Colonel'. Toorak, Melbourne, Victoria
McAlister, Billy.
McDougall and Co.
Medlow, George.

McInnis and Fell (Donald McInnes, William Fell).
McKenna, Alf. South Australia.
McKenna, Richard (Dick). Flemington, Melbourne, Victoria.
McMahon, C.G.
Mentha, H.
Moran, W.
Morey, W.
Morrow, Jim. Wagga (with George McDonald).
Morton, A.J., as above in partnership with Maiden although also operated alone. Sydney.
Morton, R. Melbourne. At times a partnership with Dixon; other times as Bell, Morton and Co.
Moxham Brothers, Parramatta.
Murray-Smith, William David.

Neary, J.
O'Donnell, J.S. West Maitland, N.S.W.
O'Donnell Brothers, Maitland.
Pascoe, Charlie.
Patterson.
Powell, Gus.
Poulton.

Ralli, S.S. Balaclava, South Australia.
Rasheed, Mick. Gum Park Estate, Redbill, South Australia (Rasheed Brothers).
Rasheed, Sam. Minburra, South Australia (Rasheed Brothers).
Raw, Alfred (Alf) H. Brooklyn Park, Adelaide, South Australia.
Reynolds, S.F. Melbourne, Victoria.
Rice, Pat.
Rogers, James.
Ross, Daniel.
Rowlands, J.C.
Robb, Jim. Adelaide, South Australia.
Rowley, Joseph G., Waverley, Sydney, NSW.

Salter, Sydney.
Schmidt, Wolfgang. Baulkham Hills, N.S.W.

Singh, Juwan. Blanchetown, South Australia.
Skene, Curtis. Kilbride, Campbell Town, NSW.
Steinwedel, W.H.

Tail, Tom.
Tindale, Percy. Bylong, N.S.W.
Tulloch, James. Segenhoe, Scone, N.S.W.

Van Rennan, H.P. Victoria.
Warren, Thomas, shipped horses with James Lalor then alone.
Watson & Hewitt.
Weekes, Edward (Teddy).
Woods, W. Toowoomba, Queensland.
Young, A.E. (worked for Julius Gove and Co.,).
Yuill, G.S. & Co. Adelaide.






HORSE SALE AT KAPUNDA.
AN INTERESTED GROUP. The Horse Sale held at Kapunda last week attracted a lot of attention. The sales totalled 456, and the average price was over £15. Those in the group are Messrs. R. McKenna and J. Robb (buyers from India), Harold Coles, Charles Coles, Sydney Reid, Sir Sidney Kidman, Messrs. C. Kidman, Steve Margrett (Indian buyer), Ross Coles (auctioneer), G. Medlow, and A. Raws (Indian buyer). 
Above photo & caption - The Chronicle, October 1939.




SOME LEADING HORSE SELLERS AND BUYERS
Top Row : Norman A. Richardson, W. McEwen, R. Forcus, S. F. Reynolds, W. F. G. Bedford, M. Howard, and H. J. Tidney.
Bottom Row : J. Howell. J. Little. Julius Gove, John Barker, R. T. Allen. R. McKenna. A. Glasscock, with Pat McGaffen immediately in front.
Above photo & caption: Adelaide Observer, August 1903.
Mr S. Kidman's army of Drovers. Kapunda Sales 1904. 
photo Adelaide Observer.



Buyers at a big Wodonga sale in 1900
T . H. Griffith. I. Little. F Shield. W B. Smith. C. L. Griffith. A. Gillder. W. Moran. T. C. Naples. J. Baldock. W.J.Lyon. E. Krcrouse. S. Margetts. R. M'Kenna.
C J. Clarke.  F. Reynolds. M. Howard. H. J. Gidney. W. Rosling. W. A. Adamson. J. Gove.
photo source The Australasian.


~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 

Defense Department/government buyers...
WW1 unless otherwise stated
M.A. Irwin, Imperial Commissioner (horse buyer for govt), N.S.W.
Captain Jones
Captain Robertson (also prior to WW1, was at Kapunda 1910 buying for example).
Captain Hankey, Imperial remount Commission.
J.R. Henry
Harry J. Gidney
McKinnon, Hugh. from Vic, also bought in N.S.W.
Muggridge (for our govt for Boer War)
M. O'Connor, N.S.W.
Mick Rasheed.
Colonel Hunt, Army Remount Dept. Boer War
Captain Nutall, Royal Army Veterinary Corps, Boer War.
Lt-Colonal Gribbin M.R.C.V.S. bought for govt WW1, stationed at Liverpool (NSW) depot. he'd also bought for the Boer war.
Charlie Gidney bought for the Boer War.
Robert Baldock. 

...being updated...

~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 



TRADERS

biographical notes

Robert G. Baldock...
lived on Ellengowan Station, Clifton, Queensland, where he bred horses for India and cattle. Ellangowan was 36 miles from Warwick.

Rob was also a keen trader, in 1935 in an interview (Chronicle, 28th Feb) he said he'd 'crossed the line' (the equator) about 100 times, as he not only went to India for Christmas often but managed several trips there a year with horses. 

He often travelled with other horse buyers and traded to Bombay. His wife died on one trip en route home, in 1908, the ship pulled into Fremantle, she was taken ashore to hospital and died. Robert returned to India by the same ship rather than continue home. 

In 1933 he went over with 800. Sometimes he included a few quality cattle in his horse shipments. In 1932 he'd been to India 40 times, he was going over with his wife, he'd remarried at some stage and their daughter was born in 1916 in Melbourne.

Photo: R. G. Baldock, from the Telegraph (Brisbane) 1936.

He would travel over with one load of horses and stay in Bombay to see them spelled off the ship, polished up, handled as necessary and sold. His own dealers would travel back and buy more shiploads as required, for example he and Gove sent three dealers back for three more loads in 1906 just after they arrived. The horses sold like hotcakes. Baldock had a top reputation for supplying quality. He condemned 'weeds' and horses 'with high shoulders (withers) and low necks' as being no good and likely to break their wind.


 In 1934 he went over with his wife and their daughter Valerie. He also took a few racehorses at times with the remounts. In an interview in June 1914 (just before the war) on a visit from from India, he said he was sending about 2,500 horses annually there. 

He had a good depot of his own in Bombay and stayed half the year in India, and half in Australia. His wife enjoyed the social rounds, Delhi horse show, golf and contract bridge there, in an interview in 1935 she also sympathised with the independence ideals of Ghandi; his son remained at home running the station.

In 1929 it was mentioned that in a load of 750 he took over on the Quiloa, was a strong piebald of 15 hands for a drum horse for the Indian Army. 

In December 1926 he travelled with horses on the Sirdhana and other traders Dick McKenna, Dick Gilder and Jim Love - the ship was going to Calcutta. Baldock generally went to Calcutta for the Christmas festivities, balls and cocktail parties, and racing and polo, then daughter Valerie went to compete in the Delhi Horse Show and Robert and wife followed the social season to Bombay, where he met up with his horses, all rested and in good care. He was the biggest single supplier of horses to Bombay from Australia, importing a minimum of 1,500 annually for native and British mounted regiments and artillery.


Baldock Brothers... 
Other Baldocks traded horses - notably Christopher Godrey Baldock  and William Carey Baldock, who were brothers.

Their father was Colonel Robert Walters Baldock H.E.I.C.S (Honorable East India Company Service) who migrated from 'St Heliers', Jersey, U.K. to South Australia in 1854. Children born on Jersey, probably raised in India. They started horse trading in the 1850's. 

Colonel Christopher Godfrey Baldock was Colonel Robert Baldock's brother - also from the East India Co. forces - who'd also migrated to S.A. A real military family who knew India well. The son was hence named after his uncle. (hopefully got a handle on the family tree, apologies if not).

Christopher Baldock (son of Robert) was racing a chestnut mare, Jessie, in the Hack Stakes in 1856 at Goolwa near Port Elliot, S.A. In 1861 it was Minnie in a match race, 1862 one called Gingerade, in 1863 his Aberdare and Minnie both won; in 1867 it was Highflyer.

William arrived in Adelaide from Port Louis in 1860 with a Mr Demazures; and returned from Port Louis again in 1861, both times returning from taking horses over. It was reported he taken several loads of horses to Port Louis (Mauritius) from South Australia. In 1861 not all sold as supply outstripped demand, so he'd put 26 onto a French vessel and gone on to the Isle de Bourbon (RĂ©union) to sell successfully them there.

In that year, 1861, Colonel Robert Baldock's property Woodlands, 450 acres at Port Elliot, was sold. The Colonel had served with the 46th Regiment of Infantry (and other regiments) and was 75 at his death in 1859. His wife Susannah died soon after him in early 1861. So the B
aldocks came from a good military family that knew India and were also pioneers in the S.A. horse trade. After the death of both parents a move was made.

At some stage Christopher and William moved to Melbourne; there's a record of William going from Adelaide to Melbourne on the White Swan in 1862. The brothers may have stayed a while in both states as they seemed to be working in both over the 1860's, although settling in Victoria. In the mid 1860's Christopher was buying good gallopers in Melbourne for top prices, and he was trading horses to India. In 1865 they sent a big load from Melbourne to Calcutta.

Christopher Baldock lived at "Currawa," Windsor, Melbourne. At times he was reported returning from India with family and servants. 

In 1873 Christopher and William and R.C. Mitchell took 244 horses on the Lanarkshire to Calcutta, via Fremantle. In 1877 it was reported a daughter was born to William's wife.

In Christopher 1899 Christopher travelled over to Bombay with his wife, daughter, son and another horse trader R. H. Glasscock. One daughter had married that in May that year, and in September he sold up at Currawa including 'art furniture' and a beautiful phaeton and fine harness, to move to India.

The Baldock Brothers bred as well as buying, racing and showing good horses. Christopher got a prize  showing a draught colt in 1868 in the Murray Valley. He raced horses in VRC meetings. The brothers went over to India each year. A few of their trips... (heaps more)... 

In 1869 a Mr Baldock from Melbourne was going over to Calcutta with a load of 122 horses, including several well bred gallopers. The news report said they were the finest horses ever to leave the port, and that Baldock had taken horses many times to Calcutta.

In 1883 the brothers took 360 horses over to India on the Gulf of St Vincent.

William Baldock died on board the mail ship Ballarat in 1885 en route to Melbourne from Adelaide, a 'known shipper of horses to India', he was returning from India with his brother C. G. Baldock. He was buried at sea - this indicates he may have had a notifiable disease, probably caught in India, such as typhoid. A risk for all going to India with horses. 

In the 1880's Chrisopher raced a good horse named Wellington, selling it for 1,000 pounds with 100 pounds annually for the rest of its life.

A Victorian report in 1886 refers to Christopher Baldock taking 360 horses to India, travelling over with them, and was reported to have greatly improved horse shipping by the loading methods, adding to improvments made by horse trader Mr Warren, who set up a system from rail to ship, and deck to deck, of high sided walkways. 

Mostly their horses went to Bombay, occasionally Calcutta. In 1888 Christopher sending horses over including a much admired lot for the trams of Bombay, matched carriage pairs, hacks and chargers, a few gallopers and a few racing ponies.

In 1890 it was reported in Victorian papers Mr Baldock had been shipping horses to India a very long time, he was going over with Mr Weekes, also a horse trader, both taking horses.

The Baldocks shipped horses overseas from 1860 and probably earlier through to the twentieth century and were active in racing and riding and showing. Pioneers of the trade, especially for South Australia, fabulous traders.


Alfred E. (Alf) Glasscock (pronounced Glaz-co)...
was a good horseman with a great eye. He judged at horse shows - for example in 1920 and 1922 he judged the Draught and Roadster classes at Adelaide show. He always travelled to India with his horses, and lived in Melbourne. He attended the Kapunda sales and sales in Qld, NSW and Vic and was good friends with other buyers, e.g. travelling with Jim Robb in 1933 to India with horses on the Nirvana; travelling back in company of Steve Margrett's son-in-law W. Murray-Smith on another trip, 1938. Harry Gibney praised his eye for a good remount. 

Glasscock had many years exporting horses, in 1937 he took 50 polo ponies and some racehorses to Calcutta, described as the oldest Commonwealth horse trader of them all. He travelled over with Jim Robb, no spring chicken himself, on his last trip there.

The Glasscocks were a very horsey family. Alf's father Arthur and uncle Charles Glasscock had traded horses to India in the days of sail, pioneers of the trade, continuing into steam days; and had famous livery stables in the Royal Horse Bazaar complex - better known as Kirk's Horse Bazaar - taking the place over in 1870, and holding horse sales too. It was a Mecca for horsemen and sportsmen, the place to be seen. All great characters of the horse world were seen there at one time or another. Arthur had migrated from England in 1853 with his brothers. Another brother Robert (Bob) was a renown coachman. Alfred E. Glasscock of Glasscock Bros. Kirk's Bazaar is reported as dying from a kick from a horse at the Bazaar, in 1895. The names Arthur and Alfred are interchanged in the press, so one presumes this was Arthur, and Alfred was his son and lived decades after this date. It is possible the names are mixed by myself, father Alfred and son Arthur.

Hence, Arthur's son young Alf grew up with horses - becoming a major trader to India and elsewhere.




Glasscock senior's livery stables in Melbourne




Alf Glasscock also showed his horses. At the 1933 Melbourne Show for example he got 1st, 2nd and 3rd for the class for wheeler Artillery horses, and also gained the first three places in the Remount class.  A man who knew his horses, had been at the trade all his life. In 1919 he was living at "Poona", Gurner St., St. Kilda, Melbourne. He was married and a baby boy was born that year. Another of the horse trading greats. 

In 1876 his uncle George Glasscock was showing horses (won hunter stallion class with Compton) at Melbourne Show. George also worked at Kirk's Bazaar in the family horse business, sadly he was gored to death by a cow there in 1891, aged 59 years. George was immensely popular, he bred and raced steeplechasers and gallopers, had been an amateur jumps jockey and hunted - one of his hunters, The Squire, was known to all. He'd worked running horse teams to the goldfields when he first arrived, and for Cobb and Co., also spending some years with the firm in NZ; then working at Kirk's Bazaar in the family horse business.


Above. A. E. Glassock, insert, about to make his 49th trip to India with remounts, polo ponies and racehorses on the Nirvana. Photo: the Argus, 14th November 1933.


Donald McInnes... led a most exciting life. People named McInnes seemed drawn to horses and he was too. Through him, a lot of our horses were sold. 

Born in Taree NSW, at the Manning River, he was one of eleven children. He started work as a butchers boy, delivering meat by punt on the Clarence River. He looked for opportunity. It led him to the gold rushes in Western Australia where he supplied meat to the prospectors. As that looked like fading he went to Rand in South Africa, the wider area of Johannesburg, itself started by a gold rush - and imported stock including horses.

The Boer War broke out and he imported loads of horses for the British army, as well as more cattle and sheep. He raced horses in Africa, his runners did well at Johannesburg, one to his chagrin won the Jo'burg Cup but was running wide under the stand and wasn't seen by the judge. 

A big load of 60 cattle and 2,0o0 quality sheep he sent over to South Africa in November 1899, went on the steamer Warrnambool, the papers were full of praise for the personal expense and trouble McInnes went to, to build the animals roomy, well ventilated facilities and the best fodder. Don went on the steamer with them to supervise. 

His brother Colin McInnes served at the Boer war with the 4th Queensland Contingent (Imperial Bushmen), his lively letters from the war at times published in the papers, two in August and September 1900 furnished by Don who was at Chinchilla, Queensland.  

Don liked horse racing. He always kept his horse trading and livestock as the main earner, but it seems over the years his astute judgement charmed Lady Luck too.

Next he went to Manila in the Philippines. He saw horses were needed and opened a Horse Bazaar using William Scott Fell the shipping agent, to import his stock from Australia - mostly from Townsville. Jack Fanning in Australia selected most of his horses and ponies and sent them over. Every trip the steam ships Changsha and Taiyuan made to the east, they took horses for McInnes' Bazaar on the way. These ships did the regular run to China and Japan from Australia, stopping at the Philippines to unload McInnes' horses. It seems he probably went to Manila about 1902. 

In 1909, sporting a broken leg in splints, Don travelled back on a steamship from Manila to northern Queensland. This may have been because his partner Fell had gone bankrupt in 1908 - nothing to do with the horse business which was lucrative - Fell had made some speculative investments which hadn't paid off, in commodities and shares (he came good eventually). 

Don sent occasional horses over to Manila from his new home at Townsville, going over with a shipment of 30 himself on the Changsha in May 1912. Shipments of 30 odd horses from Townsville to Manila were constant, McInnes sending from 30 to 90 horses a year over. He was the most consistent and loyal supplier there in those years. 

McInnes seemed to have prospered in his few years in Manila. Clubs were hugely popular there and these probably gave him an idea for a business. On arrival in Townsville he bought a large property at Rosslea on the banks of the Ross River, and continued exporting horses to the Philippines with Fell, but it must have been difficult as Fell could not legally trade until 1911. Don, ever inventive and cashed up, turned to other pursuits - buying racehorses for himself and building business premises.

He raced horses at Townsville and was a keen proponent of unregistered racing which he ran at Cleveland for a while. His horses raced throughout Queensland, winning most top races including the Townsville Cup - and McInnes was also a bookie for a while! Some of his horses were household names, also winning in Sydney. He took up betting in a big way and gambled heavily on horses - one loss of 15,000 pounds, was won back in less than a week. He was one of the biggest bookmaker punters Queensland ever saw, legendary for decades, with agents in all the major Queensland racing centres. He'd charter a launch and go with sporting mates up to Cairns. To Cooktown with his wife and their maid. He went to Chartres Towers, Rockhampton, Hughenden, Winton, Sydney for the Easter Carnival - all over - wherever there were races and good horses. Gambling however eventually lost its interest for McInnes. In 1935 he turned his back on racing and went out west, back to his livestock, to live on Argyle at Julia Creek. He'd expanded his pastoral interests, buying several properties, which kept him busy. His two sons helped run the stations.

But before he went out west he had many years in Townsville, not just bookmaking - he owned the Tattersalls Club, his landmark building in Flinders Street, Townsville. It became known as the Tattersalls building, as he was the agent for the Golden Casket and Tattersalls lotteries for the town, and ran a tobacconist and hairdressing shop there, plus a large 4 table billards saloon; a genteel club-like atmosphere, it was the place to be seen; the best cigars and pipes smoked over a game of billards, dice or cards. 

In a room behind the billiards room games of chance were played such as hazard - a popular game from Regency times. No gambling was officially allowed, but it would appear from a couple of news items that wagering on cards was de rigeur. Charges on one occasion were dropped. In 1921 McInnes was fined for running an illegal betting shop. 

Other shops in his building were rented out. Don McInnes had the handsome building designed by architect S. Harvey and built in 1916 - it was one of the most admired street front businesses of the town, and became known throughout Queensland. It had electric power from its own big generator in the basement. 

In 1927 a drunk patron was asked to leave the billiards room by another patron. It resulted in a revolver shoot out in Flinders Street. After going for more ammo, a second shoot out was held. Police arrived, the wounded were taken to hospital. There was more excitement in 1930 when "the fortress" - the basement - was raided by police. It was fortified with steel doors, the men running the business escaped through a secret trapdoor (later caught), but 24 others were apprehended - all working men of the town. It was an illegal gambling den, at the time they were playing fan tan. McInnes had let the basement, so was not involved (like a bet on that?!). 

He was very popular, called in the papers The King of Townsville. He also helped arrange community sports, like running for the Irish Sports Association. 

The building was burned severely and almost destroyed during the war years, in March 1943. It was never said how the fires started. Much looting and damage to businesses and homes (and far worse crimes) was done by NA occupiers in Australia in WW2 as they could not be prosecuted by our law.  It upset McInnes very much, although not living or working there at the time, he loved his building; it was still a club as well as a grocery shop and other businesses. It was insured. His son, also named Don, was away at the war in the AIF. Nothing could be done until the war was over, it was too risky. Don was overseeing the rebuilding of his beloved building when he died in 1947, in his 80th year. He was survived by a wife and four living children, one other daughter, Jesse, having pre-deceased him in 1942. His obituaries were full of the names of great horses he'd raced. A fascinating man, larger than life, who must have been great fun; and ironically the most loyal trader to Manila of our horses.


Robert Benjamin Lamotte... 
Lamotte was a keen rider - on the flat, over jumps and at shows - he really knew his horses and showed breeding horses in hand too. He was the third son of Frederick C. Lamotte of Glebe Point, Sydney.

Robert sent small shipments of "specials" to India - top quality horses selected for polo (he bought to 14.1 hands), hunt, race and saddle horses. At times he sent more - 200 remounts, hacks and ponies on the Virawa from Newcastle for India on one trip, he'd been to several properties buying. He regularly supplied top class chargers to officers in India.

In 1894 he and W. Dodd were in charge of a shipment of horses sent to India. Lamotte enjoyed his 'voyaging' and his friends remarked on his love of travelling to India and back. In 1898 he took a late load over, and barely made a profit. People had wanted light horses when he took a previous load over, but now he said the market had swung back to big wheelers. He would not take a late load again either! He enjoyed reading in between breaks on the ship. He recommended lucerne chaff and molasses to other shippers, in small amounts, to prevent colic.

In 1899 he bought the good hunter and champion hack of Sydney Royal, Maroo, for the wife of Calcutta's Chief Justice, Lady Jenkins, a top rider. She wanted Maroo to ride in the Calcutta Hunt Club paper chase. 

Lamotte also bought race Thoroughbreds at times, and showed horses. He had entries in the weight-carrying cob class and pony stallion class at Singleton in 1900.

In 1902 he sold a little Tb named Lucy Glitters to Earl Suffolk in India, the Earl hoped she'd make a pony chaser, but she was a fraction too tall, a tad over 14.2. He sold her to Dr. Hossack who won the 1902 Paper Chase gold cup on her, and rode her for years, saying she never once let him down. 

Lamotte rode in this race in 1895 and won it for a Mr Tougall on his horse Hayti, Tougall gifted Lamotte a silver mounted, inscribed riding whip for his great ride, a gift he always treasured. He was not young then either, but very experienced, having ridden at home including at Randwick.

Lamotte bought several offspring of the well known Welsh cob stallion Cupid, which was sold from NSW to Queensland, Lamotte recommending him as having a very good temperament and good solid build; in the paper he was referred to as a well known India buyer. He also went in showjumping classes in the Hunter. He showed polo ponies.

Based in Sydney, he imported top quality mares and stallions from England to breed racehorses and chargers.

He spent part of the year in India, like most professional horse traders. In India he was a keen rider too, entering steeplechase races for hunters, and paper chases. In 1903 he won three paper chase events with his gelding named Perth.

In 1907 he was judge for blood horses at Singleton Show. 

Tragically, Lamotte had an untimely death, although not young, he had been in fine health. Early in 1909 he died of cholera in Calcutta; he'd had it only 12 hours. This was a huge risk for all horse traders. A great loss of a popular and much loved man. Many traders lost family members to this disease while on business in India. A good TB, Rosanule, he'd imported, was sold for his estate.



William (Bill) Burgess... might take a shipload of only 60 over to India some years, but like Lamotte's specials they were carefully chosen, top quality.



Horses in the Kapunda saleyards, 1909, 
source Kapunda Herald, Oct 1909.


Juwan Singh... sometimes spelled Jewan by the press, lived on his own farm near Blanchetown, upper Murray, South Australia, was a regular buyer of horses at Kapunda, for use and for breeding within Australia. He bred, bought and sold good horses being famous for good draughts. These were often used to breed artillery horses. He won first prize at the Swan Reach Show in 1913 with a draught entire, possibly the same one he sold later that year for an astounding 130 guineas, named Clan Macarthur. He bred good work and artillery horses.

He also raced horses, one of his, Cherry, won the Royal Handicap at Williamstown in May 1898, no doubt he had many other winners too. He was at times referred to as Sirdar Jewan Singh in the papers, Sirdar being a title meaning one of high rank, this may be either in the military or as a person of great responsibility in civvies. Like many other people of Indian descent in Australia he was a fine horseman with a good eye for a horse which commanded great respect from all. His business at Kapunda was much appreciated. Jewan, Bhagat, and Sidara Singh had a horse auction in May 1910 at Loxton, and sold 70 of their own horses at very good prices, Coles were the auctioneers. At Waikerie (Murray River) in 1911 he sold 40 heavy draughts at auction, in 1908 he sold a lot of horses at Moorook, Murray River, at auction.

In 1917 he enlisted in the Light Horse, and sold all his horses and horse equipment at a large unreserved auction on his farm at Nott's Well. He obviously returned safely and got a horse and cart, for in 1919 he met an accident when a horse startled and took off as he was altering the cart seat, a wheel went over his head. He was unconscious for some hours.

Jewan was one of the principal buyers at Kapunda for many years, for example in 1909 he bought 101 horses there.




at Kidman's famous Kapunda horse sales in South Australia, 1918. 

Juwan Singh, noted horse buyer from Blanchetown on the right. 

The other looks like Kidman, who was 6 feet tall, so Singh was a good height too.
 Library of South Australia photo.


James Edward (Jim) Robb... lived in South Australia. He'd migrated from Scotland with his parents, arriving on his first birthday. He started young in the horse trade, working for Gidney and Derham and accompanying horses to India at age 16 - they'd noticed his uncanny ability to train horses and employed him on the condition he finish his education at the same time. His daughter Maise Chettle (nee Robb) wrote a book about him "Jim Robb", published by Seaview Press in 1996 - lots of photos and a great look at the trade and breeding. He bred horses for India as well as buying them, having the station Lambinna. Among others he used six stallions of the Pistol line there (Pistol was by Carbine, one of the toughest and greatest racehorses ever, a true stayer; "Old Jack" was hugely loved in Australia and was sent to Britain in his old age). 




Jim Robb. 
The Express, Adelaide, December 1922.

Robb constantly bought good TB stallions and occasional draught stallions. He bred thousands of horses and culled heavily for type and temperment, shooting some at each muster and many more hundreds yearly after 1938 and the trade to India pretty well cut out. On a tour around Central Austalia in 1930 with C.A. Martin he was critical of many horses showed to him for sale (they were buying for India) and although they got 200 horses it was with a lot of travelling. Robb shot hundreds that looked "inbred and wretched."

One of the stations that was part of Lambinna is Granite Downs which now forms part of the vast Indulkana Aboriginal lands. Carbine's blood is in the Gardens station Walers we accessed. Some birdcatcher type marks (flecks etc) on the Gardens horses and tail colouring at the top of the tail are called 'Pistol Marks' from this influence, known as such in Robb's day.

Robb ran Thoroughbreds but also put draught through to get his types, his ideal horse early on having a 'draught grandmother'. His types soon bred true - heavy artillery, lighter artillery, remounts. Robb usually spent 6 months on his stations then the rest of the year in Adelaide where he had land for horses at Prospect, training horses ready for Ceylon and India. His son Walter became a good horseman too, sadly both he and Jim caught typhoid on one trip to India and Walter died there. It was his fourth trip to Calcutta and he was only 24. His mother and sister rushed over but arrived too late. His brother Alec with them, also a good horseman, escaped infection.

Robb also supplied South Australia's police horses. In 1937 he said all credit for their good reputation was due to Inspector Johns of the police, who made sure the semi-wild horses they got from Robb were carefully trained by the police.

In WW1 Robb enlisted and served from 1914 to 1918, became a Sergeant in the Army Veterinary section of the Light Horse but due to medical conditions (foot squished by a horse) did not leave Australia. 

Robb had 41 trips to India, the last in 1938 when his son died there, although he continued selling horses there - racehorses, remounts, field gun horses, polo ponies, private matched carriage horses, paperchasers (one to the Prince of Wales who came a cropper off it, Robb was riding behind him, in India, and said it wasn't the horses fault!), private riding horses. 

After WW2 he was still selling horses - to the Emperor of Abyssinia, India through Calcutta, and Greece, Turkey, Malaya and France. As the horse trade was decreaasing, he went over more to sheep and cattle, in 1941 shooting 638 mares and fillies on Lambinna "to save precious water." Among his stallions then was Reno, a TB imported from Ireland. The stallions were not shot. One of South Australia's greats, and a natural horseman.


Steve (Stephen) Margrett... had the military bearing and gunbarrel-straight back of a natural horseman. 

He lived in Melbourne, moving his way through the suburbs until he landed in Melbourne's most prestigious suburb Toorak where he had a spacious mansion, by then horses had made him truly rich. He was a self made man - not bad for the thirty first child of thirty three in his family! Everyone loved and respected him.


Steve Margrett, photo Australasian (Melbourne) 1936.

Born in Cheltenham, England (his father had two marriages) he'd migrated to NZ in 1879. After taking a load of horses to India, he then moved to Australia, first working as a roughrider for the police. He was an ace rider, and fearless. He'd hop on an unbroken horse at the sales to razz up the buyers. In 1907 he won the prestigious Tollygunge Cup for the best remount, riding in the Calcutta Stakes of Bengal, in India - ironically presented to him by horse killer Earl Kitchener.

The inimitable Steve Margrett was known as the Colonel for his dapper ways and neat military appearance. He was a good breaker. He was one of the great characters of the trade, feted by all. At Kapunda he loved to set off firecrackers to liven things up, some so big they were called bombs - thus people said Kapunda had two fireworks days - Guy Fawkes and Margretts. He went to India with his horses each December and had almost 50 Christmas dinners there. 

His first trip was in 1884, he was in charge of 198 horses from Port Chalmers, New Zealand, shipped in the sailing ship Night Hawk. They went in the hold which was dangerous. It was hard work keeping them on their feet. Hot conditions en route meant water ran out, and Margrett got the skipper to call into Cocos Island for water, where it was brought to them by punt. They had barely got some on board when a cyclone loomed and they took off for Madras. The horses had strict water rations and 10 died. All up a trip of 68 days, and an arduous one. Margrett learned much. 

Margrett was invited over to W.A to look at their horses 1919/20 and said he was delighted with those he saw, he went over twice, and bought some horses for India from the Geraldton area, shipping them from Fremantle. He encouraged the trade there.

He loved to go to the races in Calcutta with his close friend and fellow trader Dick McKenna. He went to Kidman's first sale at Kapunda and rarely missed another for over 30 years. His daughter Alice married Scottish born William Murray-Smith, who became Margrett's partner in the horse trade to India. Steve Margrett himself had married Tom Derham's daughter. Tom was one of the big men in the trade early on. A lot of inter-marriage went on among the horse trading families.

Steve Margrett died in 1946, he'd had over 60 years horses trading to India. What a man.



Henry (Harry) J. Gidney was from Benalla, Victoria. He was in partnership with Tom Derham. They were two of the greats of the trade. Harry was the son of famous horse breeder and trader to India, Isaac Gidney.

When judging on the behest of the Defense Dept at the 1924 Sydney show, Harry refused to hand a ribbon in the remount class as none exhibited were up to remount quality, being fine Thoroughbreds. He also liked good Shires, being proper four square harness horses, not bred for ploughing like Clydes which went narrow behind, hence being cow-hocked, nor having the 'bottom' - endurance - of a harness horse. He recognised the Shires that were dual registered as Clydesdales to improve that breed. He knew Clydes as his father Isaac had imported Clydes into Australia, and other draughts

photo: the Age, Melbourne, September 1938.

Harry first showed ponies at Melbourne Royal when he was 12 years old, and gained first prizes including jumping, the start of a long show career. He became a judge in 1886 at Corowa Show NSW and was soon judging at the Royals, being the only person then to judge at them all - Perth, Adelaide, Sydney (5 years straight), Brisbane and Melbourne (many years) and this judging career went on for the rest of his life - as well as his busy horse trading to India. He refused to take fees for judging and was proud there had never been a single protest against his decisions. He judged at the Benalla show for 40 years straight.

He took his first load of 400 horses to India when he was aged 19, on a sailing ship. He was said to have bought more horses at Kirk's Bazaar - a famous horse sale in Melbourne - than any other person. He had such a good eye for a horse he was made a government buyer for our own army for WW1. He leased Lima Station near Benalla in 1880, in 1900 he bought a half share in it. He built a beautiful home and the whole property became a showpiece, a big horse breeding property, also Herefords and sheep. He bought more properties as he prospered.

Gidney with his partner Tom Derham were big traders. They set Jim Robb up in the business, and opened up South Australia for horse trading by buying there and trucking (rail) horses to Melbourne to be shipped to India. Eventually Port Adelaide woke up and started shipping horses direct to India which made life a lot easier for Robb who bought on behalf of Gidney and Derham until he struck out on his own. Harry's sister Ada married his partner in business Tom Derham. Harry Gidney died in 1947, aged 83, leaving a son and grand-daughter. At his death he was living at 'Bangalore', Bay Street, Brighton, Melbourne. A grand horseman.
Note: There was a Sir Henry Gidney of Bangalore in India, an outstanding soldier, horseman, politician and eye surgeon, who left a legacy in the form of an award. His father was John Gidney and his mother Margaret David, a brilliant Anglo-Indian scholar (they married). Any relationship would be distant but it's probable they met, having the same name, and as the Australian Gidneys traded to Bangalore a lot.

Isaac and Charlie Gidney... Famous India trading and horse breeding family. Harry (Henry) Gidney, above, is the same family - son of Isaac and brother to Charlie. Although he worked independently the family kept close ties; in 1893 for example Harry sent 253 horses to Madras and Isaac 53 horses to Colombo, both on the Booldana. 

As well as the two sons, Isaac had three daughters, two remained in the trade so to speak - one married Tom Derham the famous horse trader, and another married Krcrouse, another trader the other daughter married a Blackburn.


The father, Isaac Charles, was known as Isaac and his son by the same name known as Charlie. 

Charlie Gidney at the Wodonga sales.
photo: the Australasian, March 1900.

Isaac Charles senior died in January 1894 after a brief illness, he was aged 66. At the time his two sons were in England on horse trading business. All were India traders; horse buyers and horse breeders of note. Isaac took the boys from early childhood to Adelaide and all over the place buying horses for India, and good breeding horses for their own place. 

Young Charlie was a big buyer for the Boer war as well as India. Isaac senior left property including the house 'Stratford Villa' in Dry-burgh Street, North Melbourne to his wife Mary Ann, and two large farms to his two sons - Rockbank also known as Spring Farm to Charlie, and Woodlands in Gippsland to Harry.

The Gidneys all bred horses and often did their own overlanding of horses to sales. They also bought to sell to India. In 1900 at a large horse sale at Wodonga, Charlie paid a record 100 pounds for an outstanding pair of carriage horses, unbroken, for the India market. These two were part of a draught of good horses bred by P. and W. Mitchell of Brigenbong Station. J. Mitchell of Khancoban also had a fine draught of horses suited as remounts at the sale. Charlie was there spending up getting remounts for Africa.

The Gidneys bred top carriage horses, coachers, hunt horses, remounts and gunners, using trotter (Norfolk roadsters) and draught blood mostly. In 1884 Isaac sold his imported draught stallion Young Paragon for 460 guineas, having bred well fom him, and bought a replacement - an imported stallion called Cromwell, paying 600 pounds for him. Cromwell, bred in Lincolnshire, no doubt having some old Lincolnshire Black in his blood, was by Thumper out of Diamond and got into the Australian Draught Horse Stud Book posthumorously - Volume 1 being released in 1910 by the Royal Agricultural Society of Victoria. At least three other stallions Isaac had owned got into this studbook posthumorously (47 horses thus included), being Young Conqueror, Young Topsman and Ben Lomond.

Isaac senior topped the sale price in Adelaide in 1873 for a horse that went for 82 pounds. His draught of 27 were said to be superior to any other horses sold there, and were described as Tasmanian cart horses. All were named (such as Kate, Jessy, Blossom, Duke of Edinburgh etc), some being Clydesdale crosses, a couple pure Clyde (or cart horses indeed, the old name for Shire). In 1885 he showed a stallion, newly imported, named Handsome John at Melton - it already had a full book for the season.

At the National Agricultural Society of Victoria's annual Stallion parade in Melbourne, the Gidneys took stallions. In 1876 for example Isaac took a stallion named Young Conqueror. In 1885 he had an imported draught named Handsome John he took to a stallion parade at Melton. 

In 1889 Isaac showed two hunter stallions, Merrythought - this horse was said to be one of the best sires for remounts for the India trade; and Merryspeed, at Bacchus March - both by his imported Norfolk roadster stallion Merrylegs, which was showed at Melton in 1882 among other outings. In 1881 Merrylegs came in for great praise at the 9th annual stallion parade in Melbourne run by the Ag. Soc. in St Kilda. Another son, Young Merrylegs, was said to be the one of the best coaching stallion in Australia and was sold to Western Australia in 1884. In 1890 at the Melbourne Show, Merryspeed was said to be the best stallion there was for getting cavalry horses for India. In 1895 Isaac sent 210 remounts to Calcutta on an order from the Indian government.

In 1882 Isaac took a draught Young Topsman to the parade.  In 1879 Merrylegs won the coverted J. Wagner Cup at the Melbourne Show for hackneys, trotters and carriage horses. He threw excellent carriage horses. The Gidneys took their horses to many shows. Isaac was also a judge at shows in Gippsland and Melbourne, referred to as 'Isaac Gidney of Kirk's Bazaar'. He bought leased and bought land in Melbourne to stage his horses to sales such as Kirk's Bazaar, or to docks, and for going to and from parades and shows. 

In 1877 (he was living on his farm in the Melton district then) he showed a draught, Ben Lomond, at the stallion parade, and a Norfolk roadster called Flying Perfection. At the Melbourne Show is 1876, it was reported there was a rush to the rails of the ground every time Flying Perfection was trotted around. He came equal first with another Norfolk trotter/roadster.

At Traralgon Show in 1890 Isaac got a cup for his horses along with two other Roadster entires (Cannoneer, Royal Stranger and Merryspeed) for horses most likely to get good cavalry horses for India.

Isaac eventually moved from Hotham to North Melbourne. In 1892 he built Bangalore (another name from India), an opulent house in Canning Street, which also housed his business office. 

The Gidneys are great examples of breeders and traders striving for the best, by using the best in breeding, and getting their horses out and about. Top traders, with the respect of all.



James Simpson (Jim) Love...
concentrated on horses in Queensland
where he lived. He eventually bought and had interests in 14 large properties. His business was called Indian Remounts Ltd in India, and Egera Pastoral Company in Australia (company still going to this day). 

He owned Egera near Chartres Towers and Butcher's Hill west of Cooktown, his main horse depots and horse breeding properties (also cattle). Love culled ruthlessly, according to reliable sources in the early 1920's cutting the jugular vein of about 500 horses on Butchers Hill; he sold the property in 1925 as breeding had been indiscriminate, he thought the market was dropping out (indeed, mechanisation was coming into force). The book 'The Battlers of Butcher's Hill' by Lennie Wallace is a good read about that property's history. 

Photo from the Townsville Daily Bulletin November 1933. 


He bought other cattle properties, loved racing and was a fan of Clydesdales. No doubt as he was Scottish, but Queensland had some of the best Clydesdales of the time at Maryvale stud. These were sold throughout Queensland. 

A hard man, born in Scotland, who migrated here in 1879 when he was 16 to join his parents (he'd been left to finish school), Love prospered. He was hard on his Indian workers. He lived in Townsville, having married Mary Jane Gordon in 1886 he settled into family life early. From 1887 he was Secretary of the Townsville Turf Club for the next 38 years and had business interests. He bred horses for racing and the military, importing many TB stallions and mares from England, and Clydesdales. He also brought in a big French jack for mule breeding, which was unusual in Australia.

A Presbyterian, Jim Love left a huge amount of money in his will when he died in 1933, to be distributed to charities and causes that apply annually to this day - the only stipulation being that no Catholics get help. A scholarship for Queensland students only, is among the many legacies he left. A fortune made from selling horses, James Love is a good example of a successful horse trader in the days good horses were gold and there was a giant demand for military horses. He left three daughters, all living in England, when he unexpectedly died in 1933, aged 70. His name was a household word.



Alfred John Cotton...
was an extraordinary character who became a horse trader. Born in the English Channel on Jersey Island, moving to Essex while he was a pup, his first memory was hugging a horse's leg. 

Due to a sudden change in family circumstances he was sent to sea at age 14 and had 6 years working on the briny. 


A.J. Cotton.
Queensland Country Life, October 1909.

At age 20 he arrived in Australia, penniless. He went jackarooing and book-keeping on Yalleroi Station in NSW and became a great bushman, soon he was droving cattle from northern Queensland down to NSW, and employing others - having several mobs on the move.

He'd learnt valuable horse skills and all his life held great affection for Yalleroi. He was a fearless rider.

He worked hard and prospered. He got into cattle mustering on contract. By 1886 he had a property lease. In 1890 he married Annie Bode. He eventually bought, leased and had shares in dozens of stations.

His start was a partnership in Bromby Park near Bowen, Queensland. Then he bought Goorganga station near Bowen, next it was Jost Vale Station, re-naming it Hidden Vale and building a gracious two storey house with wide verandhas - the new family home. Based at Hidden Vale, he got stuck into dealing in stock and property. He went over to London in 1905 for several months to float a company to buy Gulf stations.

Other properties bought and sold were Inkerman Station, Goomally, Lorn Hills, Bauhinia Downs, Springfield Station, Redcliffe, Maryvale, Canobie Station, Canobie West, Mt Spencer, Woodstock, Punjaub, Fiery Downs, Lawn Hill, August Downs, Powlathanga, Coalbrook (Hughenden), Langi, Pinetree and finally a half share in Brunette Downs; but Hidden Vale was his home - it was near Grandchester in Hidden Valley, only 44 miles from Brisbane, and covered 10,000 acres.

Here Cotton ran several stallions - many Suffolk Punches, several Thoroughbred stallions and big mobs of mares. He bred utility horses and top army horses. He did nothing in a small way, turning off scores of grand horses annually. The same with cattle - once he had 58,000 cattle on the road when he had 81,000 to move for a bank contract.

In the Boer War he lost 5,000 pounds on one load of horses but nothing daunted him. He did everything to his utmost. He kept going and made a good profit there - he supplied 1,000 horses at a good price to the Imperial Yeomanry, paid for by Lord Rothschild. They were closely inspected before leaving, went over on Dutch steamer the Folmina and were again inspected on arrival - all the horses met with great approval - resulting in him getting a contract for a further 10,000 horses for that war. He sold a good lot of cattle there too. 

He got another good contract at the same time for 2,000 horses for the Germans at the Boxer Rebellion - every one of these had to be ridden by the Germans who'd come to inspect them, hence had to be broken in. Mr Pillar from Dalgety's, Mr Kermode and J.B. McDougall helped source these horses. 

He filled all orders. His horses were so good they were the only ones not to be left in China after the Boxer Rebellion - the Germans took them home. A.J. Cotton always paid his horsemen more than others did. He appreciated their efforts which created better profit. 

He bought artillery and cavalry horses and refused to buy pure Thoroughbreds as army horses. If he or his agents saw extra good Waler types but were on a budget, they'd tell the owner not to sell to them but wait until someone who could offer a better price, its true worth, came long - A.J. Cotton never ripped anyone off. The bulk orders did not pay huge prices. J. O'Donahue and Elias Harding also sourced horses for him for this order. Some of the horses went over to the Germans on the steamer Duke of Argyll.

He improved horses on all his properties - to Alfred Cotton we owe the goodness that is quality Suffolk Punch influence in many Waler lines. He sold horses all over the place, and put good horses on his own places. As a bushman he knew the value of a good horse of stamina, sound conformation and brilliant cattle sense. He detested weeds and liked plenty of bone, saying so in several interviews.

He showed horses with great success. He greatly admired the horsemanship skills of his good friends Elias and Silas Harding of Ipswich. He liked good company and enjoyed being a member of the Queensland Club.

In 1900 his imported Suffolk Punch stallion Pluto by Wedgewood was greatly admired at Brisbane Show - described as having the best movement there and being the best for getting farm horses. 

In 1903 he showed one named Ben Lomond and another named Grandchester. He was in possession of Pluto's half brother that year, a Suffolk stallion named Saturn, the champion of England. 

In 1904 his blood stallion Elected won at champion Sydney Royal. In 1905 his Suffolk stallion Mariner came second in Active Farm Horse at Brisbane Show and his mare Cora won the Active Farm Mare class. Mariner became famous. His stallion Windermere won the draught class at Brisbane in 1908. His show wins with horses are too numerous to list. 

At times he bought for others - in January 1900 he was at Rockhampton buying for John McFarlane & Co. In turn as a trader he employed others to help him get horses, for example in April 1901 Elias Harding bought him 119, there was a heavy demand for horses and Cotton himself was sourcing horses elsewhere, he'd already sent a shipload off.

In February 1902 he sent 170 horses to South Africa on the Maori King, 80 were the "little big horses" - that were most wanted there - strong galloway size... "... bearing the well known FH7 brand. They are the best type of Walers, in splendid condition, well mannered... " Quote from the Brisbane Courier, 14th Feb 1902. The rest were horse artillery horses, but he had trouble finding any with the right touch of draught for field artillery. 

On the same trip Silas Harding took expensive polo ponies to sell in South Africa, including one of his champion cream mares. Cotton sent Frank Nott, veterinary surgeon, with 
the horses and to see them right once there too. Cotton always followed up on his horses, getting reports on them. He was proud to send the best, have them valued, and doing their job well.

Like many migrants he felt drawn back to his origins - he'd kept up family contacts there through mutual business dealings - in 1908 he decided move back to England and sold his home, Hidden Vale, although he kept some other properties here.

The horse sale on Hidden Vale alone was amazing - 21 Suffolk Punch stallions, 11 blood stallions and 395 head of other horses. He sold all his Shorthorn cattle. Alfred thought it was best for his children to finish their education in England; as he'd become very wealthy cost was no barrier.

They had a house in Brisbane which was base until they set off for England. Rather than go to the UK by luxury cruiser, Cotton went over on a trade steamer with 1,000 cattle to sell! They went on a 6 month tour to Canada and North America where he studied horses and cattle raising, being very impressed by Cana
da. He went to the Dublin horse show and Olympia horse show in London and toured about the UK in a motorcar, saying when he got back to Australia, that horse cabs would soon be extinct - yes, he didn't stay there long! He headed back to Australia after less than two years in England.

His children attended school in England and Alfred returned to Australia - his grazing properties being managed he took up his love of sailing, moving to Tasmania in 1912. He had the beautiful yacht Canobie built in Hobart. He competed keenly in yacht races, winning many cups. The Cotton Cup was named for him. He was President of the Hobart Regatta Association for some time. In 1914 he visited Queensland again and re-purchased his old home of Hidden Vale. He returned to Hobart to sail for a while, and alternated between Tasmania and Queensland. Winter in Queensland was better. In 1919 Hidden Vale house burned down. It was insured but he lost more than the insurance worth. He moved into Brisbane for his Qld trips. A son managed Hidden Vale and re-built. 


By 1920 Alfred moved back to Queensland to live, but paid regular vists to Hobart and Kettering nearby to watch his old yacht race, having sold her on, being there for the sailing season (summer) of 1920 and 21. He was still President of the Regatta Assoc and helping officiate at races in 1921. 

Horse trading was over for Cotton but he still needed horses for his properties. His breeding ideas and bloodlines had made a huge contribution to improving horses over a vast area. He got about the vast land of the north to manage his properties - in 1928 with one of his sons he drove in a motorcar from Darwin to Townsville in less than a week - a record for the time! Even into the late 1930's when he was old, he was travelling tremendous distances in by car to oversee his properties. He was a frequent visitor to Hidden Vale. In 1923 he took his daughter on a full year holiday to England, his son Sidney had moved there to live.
In 1937 he went to New York when Sid was there for a time.



Alfred John Cotton in later age, photo from Queensland Country Life, 1st May 1941, from which a few details here are drawn. 

Brunette Downs was to destroy him financially. He had a half share in the lease. Cattle prices slumped and he had to fight legal battles over improvements as part of the lease, and invest in sheep - an experiment for that country. He sold all his property to put into this project. Perhaps he was too stubborn and should have walked away but he wasn't the sort to give up. At the same time in 1929 the stock market crash took all his other investments - he went from being a multi-millionaire to pauper. His wife Annie also died that year - a terrible time. Fatefully, his father had gone from boom to bust (causing his death) and son Sidney was to suffer the same fate. Three generations of mega riches to nothing in old age.

A.J. wrote a great book, With The Big Herds In Australia, and rollicking articles about his experiences cattle mustering, for newspapers such as The Queenslander. When his fortune went others did not see this as failure - A.J. was a man with better values than money. His dauntless courage, great horsemanship, warm friendship and sense of humour got him through anything and made him loved by all who met him. He was universally respected, and Australia was still a country a person was respected for themselves, not their material worth. It must however, have been a tough time for all his family. Alfred moved from Southbank to South Brisbane.

In 1941 Alfred Cotton died in Brisbane aged 79 after an amazingly full life, survived by three sons and a daughter. Another little girl had died at only 7 months old. His son Sidney had become a famous spy and aviator - James Bond was modelled on Sid - author Ian Fleming being a friend, but it was Bond, tame Bond, compared to Sid Cotton!

One lovely obituary for A.J. by a friend told how Alfred valued courage, honesty and comradeship, which he called Australian bush values, over wealth and material success. 

A great Australian who helped open up the north, put quality and bone into the genesis of our Walers, and helped forge their reputation by supplying, showing and breeding top quality horses. A story of material tragedy but personal triumph. A great man, brave enough to have a go, brave enough to fall - and having a jolly good time along the way! A great horse breeder, a great Australian.


John O'Donoghue went to every single Toowoomba horse sale for 35 years straight, missing his first one in 1942. He lived in Toowoomba and travelled around Queensland buying horses, described in 1931 as one of the biggest horse buyers of the state. He bought for others such as Frank Beasley, Jim Love and A.J. Cotton.  He was Irish with a strong accent. Spelling of his name varies so am unsure which is correct. At times in newspapers it was variously spelled O'Donohue, O'Donaghue, Donohue and Donaghue. Can't find him sending horses away himself, although he may have, but he bought for the big traders and knew his horses. He scorned weeds which he called Kerry goats. He sent top class ponies, hacks, draught crosses and light draughts to Toowoomba sales too.




Richard (Dick) McKenna, one of the great characters of the horse trade, was said in 1933 to have been trading to India longer than anyone alive. He'd had 48 Christmas dinners there. 

He often travelled to India with his mate Steve Margrett and other horse buying greats, and was a great fan of the racing in Calcutta which he reported as exceedingly well run, in 1924 saying there were three stipendary stewards. In that year he and Margrett went to India for Christmas on a ship with 800 of their horses. 


Chicago, 1888 Caulfield Cup winner, trained by McKenna, painted by Frederick Woodhouse. 

McKenna tried to get quarantine rules changed so mares and stallions sold to India could come back, to continue their lines here. People were reluctant to let good breeders go away forever. McKenna had trained racehorses, he'd also been a jockey for a short time. He knew his Thoroughbreds, he trained a winner of the 1888 Caulfield Cup, Chicago, and among the Thoroughbreds he sold to India, two won the coverted Viceroy's Cup (Grafton and Great Scot). The Viceroy's Cup to India was like the Melbourne Cup to Australia. The bees knees. 

His main trade was in remounts and paperchasers. He advocated remount breeders choosing the best sires and dams, and was a great fan of staying types and horses with plenty of bone. 


Photo: 'Old hands at the Game', Richard McKenna, Sir Sidney Kidman, Steve Margrett at the Kapunda sales, 1932. Chronicle (Adelaide).

McKenna went to Kidmans first sale at Kapunda with his dapper mate Steve Margrett, one of the most famous India men, and never missed one after that for over thirty years. Kidman became a sound friend. In Calcutta McKenna stayed at the Continental.




Mygeed "Mick' Rasheed (spelled Rashid at times, he spelled it Rasheed himself), was born at Mt Lebanon, Syria. He migrated when he was 22 years old with his brother Sam. They lived in South Australia and became highly respected horse buyers, often seen at Kapunda and elsewhere. 

photo: The Advertiser.

Mick was one of the biggest horse buyers in the Commonwealth. He also traded sheep. He did very well, and bought the stations Moolooloo, Lake Torrens, Gum Park and a property near Orroro. Mick was known as "The Strong Man" as he liked to keep fit and display shows of strength such as carrying large weights - three sacks of wheat  or something, and daring anyone to beat him. His feats of strength became legendary in South Australia. When he started buying horses, he sorted rude people by calmly putting them out a door - while it was closed - or into a horse trough.

He mostly traded horses from South Australia to Western Australia (went over by train) - several thousand a year - but also to the east and India. He attended a sale in April 1915 in South Australia where he bought several horses for the huge sum of 250 pounds as the money was donated to the Belgium Relief Fund, a war fund.  He donated to many charities, a noted philanthropist.

He was also a racing man and bred his own runners. At a farewell for two young recruits in 1917, he promised them the best horse on his farm (one each) when they returned. After a successful medical operation, he went on a world tour in 1924, said to be reward for a lifetime of work without a day off. He visited his birthplace on this trip. Mick also became a government buyer during the war (WW1). He travelled far and wide for horses including to NSW. He died in 1929, aged 58 - it was unexpected, he'd been to the Grand National in South Australia that afternoon. At one stage he went on a lengthy tour of Western Australia to see what they needed in horse power, and making good friends as he went. He was greatly missed and had fine tributes in the papers after his death. 


Sam Rasheed. Lived in South Australia, brother of Mick, (above).
He was only 13 when he migrated here from Syria with his older brother. Their horse trading business was called Rasheed Brothers. The brothers traded sheep and cattle too, but horses were their love.

Photo: The Advertiser, November 1932.

Sam was a racehorse trainer as well as India buyer, more of an amateur trainer as it was family bred horses he trained - his brothers mostly. He had a good horseman's eye and bought some racehorses cheaply when he started training, some already tried, but with patience and travelling them about the country to various races to suit, he did extremely well - soon they could branch into horse trading.

At one stage he got homesick and returned to Syria, but after 18 months he was back in South Australia. Sam was a popular Chairman of the Trainers Association. His lived on his property Minburra, 70 miles east of Cameton. Sam would often stop his car to admire good working horses. 


He expressed how kind the people along the Murray were when he first arrived and was learning English, patiently helping him as he went about properties buying horses. It was not long until he could help back, like his brother, known for many acts of kindness. When he bought Angas Estate there was no school nearby, so he donated part of his land for a school. He liked to keep fit like his brother, playing tennis and cricket, and rode a pushbike from Jamestown to Adelaide often. He lived in Jamestown for a time before moving to Adelaide. His son Noel also raced horses.

Richard (Dick) Gilder. Gilder lived in Muswellbrook, NSW where he was a Member of the Upper Hunter Amateur Race Club. He loved racing and good horses. He traded to India and the East and his opinion was sought often, and he judged at many shows including in India. He was great friends with other horse buyers with whom he often travelled to India. He died in 1936 aged 65. He was born in Sale, Victoria. His horse business was conducted with his brother Alfred, who moved to Muswellbrook with him. He began exporting to India in 1891, his last trip ws 1931, and known as a practical jester and always ready to do anyone a good turn. In the last few years of his trade he partnered with McPherson for horse exporting. A horseman himself, he also trained many race winners. Both brothers also liked coursing (dog racing).


Alfred (Alf) Gilder. Above, business with brother Richard (Dick). Alf started the business some years before Richard got involved, he began exporting horses to India and the east in 1880. Alf bred and successfully showed hackneys in harness at Sale and thereabouts, it was said the leg action of his horses couldn't be bettered. He began judging on request from show committees in 1895. He had property at Sale and bought young horses all over the country. On his property he let them mature and fill out, and have some basic handling. In 1898 a wild young horse in a crush injured him badly injured. He lost partial use of his right hand and arm and his face was disfigured. He specialised in good gun horses. In 1907 he bought up 140 horses in the Stratfod area. He employed the same three grooms to care for the horses en route to India, for many years. He was an accredited buyer for the Indian government. In later life lived he on the same property as Dick and his family.


Curtis Skene. Dealt in polo ponies to India, and trained them - discussed under 'polo' near top of page. He also shipped Walers to Malaya, Abyssinia and Siam after WW2. They were sourced throughout NSW, some from Scone area. He invariably chose lighter breedy types (a lot of TB).


Julius Gove...
1854-1922. Gove had his own company, Julius Gove and Co., and specialised in shipping to Bombay. He created such a sound company, it traded on long after his death -  with A.E. Young doing a lot of the work including training the polo ponies in India reported going there in 1929 and 1931 with horses, and as late as 1947 Mr. E. Whitlock Jones sent a consignment from Adelaide to Bombay on the Umaria, among them 15 grey officers chargers, the horses bought from Paratoo Station for the company. Another shipment had just left for the company on the horse ship Querida. Julius' son Robert Gove was working for the company too - about 1933, in the depression, the Maharaja of Bharatpur swapped him a luxury automobile for a good horse; the car, a Horsch, caused a sensation in Melbourne. In 1935 Robert Gove said the company was sending between 800 and 1,500 horses annually to Bombay. 

Julius Gove would go to sales and select about 1,500 horses at the start of the season, and travel over with a load. From the port of Bombay, his horses were sent by train to his own lands and stables a few miles from the city. In 1929, A. E. Young, one of his company, said they sent 1,500 horses that year to India - one third as polo mounts and hacks, one third for the native regiments in the Indian states and one third for the British army.

Gove drove a hard bargain and wouldn't budge on price whether selling or buying. His motive was always profit and he worked hard for it. He and Jim Love were the two hard men of the game. However Gove had immense respect and also made sure his family shared his wealth. They moved in the highest circles in India and Australia. Origionally from Gippsland, Gove travelled within Australia, buying India horses in South Australia and racing some there too. 

Two of his sons were in the Bombay Light Horse - the youngest son Captain Robert Vivian Gove married Alf Glasscock's youngest daughter, Hope June; they lived at Malabar Hill, Bombay: another unification of horse trading empires through marriage. 

All Julius Gove's children grew up playing polo with their father and training ponies to sell - another son became Prince Charles' polo coach. Tragically, there was also family grief.  One son, Charles Clitus Gove, was kicked in the head by a horse in Queensland, a bad injury. When he recovered he sailed to India but died there not long after arriving, of infection after an appendicitis operation, in 1922, he was aged only 33; he left a widow Daisie and child Charles. Charlie had been a pilot in WW1. 

Julius himself didn't live to see this tragedy, he'd died unexpectedly himself in April - he'd been to the races to see one of his horses run on Saturday, and died the following Sunday morning at home, Canterbury Road, St Kilda.

He'd raced horses and had some handy jumpers and runners. He had an excellent reputation for supplying top racehorses to his Indian customers too.

Julius Gove bought a house in Canterbury Street, Flemington and built these stables in 1903 (house now gone).
Like most traders he made sure his horses got used being confined, and to the feed they'd have on ship, as well as eating from troughs and haynets, and drinking from buckets, before they were shipped.


In India he owned a commercial set up for selling and training - Gove's stables were said to be the most palatial and most modern in all western India.

Here the horses were given time to recover and stretch their legs from the long voyage, then a team of syces set to work sprucing them up for sale - they were described as "equine Beau Brummels." Once ready, they were presented to visitors. Polo ponies, pig-stickers, remounts, carriage horses - he had a reputation for the best. Buyers came from all over India for his horses and he got tremendous prices, army buyers and private.


Gove shipped regularly to keep a good supply in his stables over the season. If he sold out, or was about to, he'd send to other buyers in Australia for more, trusting implicitly in their judgment.

Gove himself trained polo ponies while in India, to achieve better prices with game ready mounts. A.E. Young was part of the company and went to India with the horses too. He also trained polo horses. They stayed in India several months over the season. Gove bought horses off the track in India if they could turn a profit - either re-trained for polo or selling to studs. He had a good eye for a horse.

His wife Catherine died soon after Julius did, and a month after their son Charlie; in January 1923, at the marital home, Claremont, Canterbury Road, St Kilda. It must have been a tough time for the family left. Five children of the marriage were Theo, Daisie, Charlie, Cyril and Bob. When Julius died in April 1922, he was 67 years old. A grand horse trader.



Sir Henry Madden...
Madden's father John and mother Margaret (nee Macoboy) had emigrated from Cork, Ireland, to London - then Australia in 1857 - John becoming Chief Justice of Victoria. Henry was thus born into wealth - but made more than others of his family by selling horses to India. He was the youngest of four sons.

Sir Henry Madden.


He bought the house and extensive acres of Flemington House, renaming it Travencore, in Melbourne. Sir Henry traded horses to the fabulous Kingdom of Travencore in India, through the port of Madras. He and his brothers Sir Frank, Sir John (also to become Chief Justice of Vic) and Walter all loved horses. Frank did good drawings of horses.

Henry followed the family trade - a lawyer. He bred and raced his own racehorses when young, before his India interests took priority. In 1865 with Edward Krause (Kerouse/Krcrouse) he set up a business sending horses to India. About 1890 they took D.D. Mackin (who later joined McKinnon and Co.) into partnership. Kerouse did the buying, and Mckinnon the selling in India. Madden looked after finances. In 1889 they took T.J. Burke, a known hunting man, into the business for buying horses.
Kerouse was a quiet man and a top judge of horses, he bought the best. Maddens loads were always highly praised in the news. Rajahs and high ranking officials in civvies and the army ordered from him. The Director of Remounts in India, Luck, ordered his chargers especially from Madden. It was said Madden's horses, including teams of matched carriage pairs and fours, were better than the best class horses in England. Kerouse was included in the praise for it was invariably he who chose the horses.

Sir Henry Madden had a palatial residence at Holloway Gate, Madras. Here, his firm sold top class racehorses (Viceroy's Cup winners Leonidas and Mundera etc), polo ponies, hunters (the Maddens loved hunting) and remounts, being considered the premier supplier of horses for the government military buyers in Madras. Sir Henry Madden was also on the committee of the Moonee Vallery Racing Club. He died in 1928.


George Kiss...
Legend in the horse trade. George Kiss senior (1830-1882) started the famous Kiss Horse Bazaar in Sydney. From Hampton Lodge, Warwickshire, he emigrated after meeting John Fairfax, the famous newspaper owner. Fairfax helped him set up a hackney cab business on arrival. Soon, he imported the first Clydesdale into Australia (so the story goes although it may have been the first registered one).

He was auctioneering by 1871 and set up his Bazaar. He became the Mayor of Randwick in 1878.  It was the oldest horse bazaar in the colony by the time son George and his brother took over in 1880. George (son) was often mentioned in the press, going to sales such as Kapunda and throughout NSW, Victoria and Queensland and buying up horses for India. In 1908 for example he drove from Sydney top the Thargomindah district in Queensland and bought remounts for India. 

The Bazaar was a landmark of Sydney, with spacious stables and yards. 

There was an entrance off Castlereagh Street, and another off Pitt Street. Livery stables were built. All buildings were solid and made of brick and stone. Horses could be baited there while people attended business at the Bazaar or in the city ( to bait was to feed and water a horse). Part of his buildings are now the George Hotel in Sydney ("Kiss's Buildings" is carved onto the pediment), in George Street. 
Ventnor in Avoca Street, Sydney.
George senior bought a famous house named Ventnor in Avoca Street in
1876, elegant Georgian sandstone. As well as horses and cattle, they sold vehicles and harness. Single buckboard buggies were delivered free to the train. He also held sales at Camperdown, and being an auctioneer, was available for sales at other places. 


Alfred John (Jack) Morton... 
Jack was a top horse trader, also a judge at horse shows and a great fan of Shire horses. He was born at Numba on the Shoalhaven River, the fifth of 8 children of Henry Gordon Morton, a surveyor and wonderful community man, and his wife Jane. The family thrived and were horsey. Three of his brothers subsequently entered parliament. One, Philip Henry Morton MP, was involved with banking and agriculture and bred remounts and utility horses with sound experimental breeding based on the best methods of creating Walers.

Jack was highly respected, being Australia's horse trade representative to Japan for our government - he did us proud. In partnership with George Maiden he sent countless horses overseas including roughly 20,000 to Japan, he called them Walers. Even in the midst of arranging purchase and shipping of the initial 10,000 ordered, he still found time to show his own hacks and to judge when asked. He was a fine judge, a true horseman. 

In 1905 Jack said over 2,000 horses passed through the Toowoomba sales alone. It was a good year for the horse trade. 

Jack also showed horses and ponies and raced gallopers. He travelled to Scotland in 1907 to purchase Ayrshire bull Remarkable for the Greystanes stud here, which he co-owned with Mr. Fraser. Jack won numerous championships with cattle as well as horses. He showed Remarkable in Scotland and England on the way home and picked up several big prizes.

As well as Australia's premier shows, Jack also judged at the best shows in India and England. He knew the remount and horse trade inside out. In a 1907 interview he warned the British remount buyers they would not get good horses if they kept paying low prices.  In the interview he mentioned he'd judged in England, Australia and India and the horses he judged at Wagga were among the finest he'd ever seen for hunters and remounts.

He bought top Shire stallions while in Wales, one named Severn Marlow which was sold to the Young area, won first prizes every time shown. 

Another brother, Henry Douglas (Harry) Morton, was a keen hunting man and famous show jumper - clearing 6 feet 7 inches at shows; at one show he cleared 6 feet 10 on his horse Commando. Harry Morton was based at Coolangatta, he and his wife also bred and showed ponies including harness ponies and hackneys. Articles about him were full of praise for Walers, calling them natural born jumpers. Many members of the Morton family were top riders including the women. Jack's brother Philip Henry Morton was a noted rider and whip, and showed Shires, ponies, jumpers and hunters.

Jack Morton's good friend and business partner George Maiden suddenly died of stroke in September 1905, as their horse trading business was in full swing. Jack faithfully saw out their contracts to the end and visited Japan to report on the horses there for our government, and maintain goodwill. He left Sydney on the E & A mail steamer Eastern in October 1905 accompanied by a Mr I. A. Morton, and returned in February 1906. On this trip he also visited Manila, Hong Kong and Shanghai and reported all places had a high opinion of Walers and except for Hong Kong, all wanted more. In Japan he was shown around the Emperor's stud (he didn't think much of the Anglo-Arabs there!) and government studs. He watched the cavalry train Australian horses and drill with them - rapt they were great horsemen, kind and patient, and stated Japan would have the finest cavalry in the world. In 1920 he sent 21 horses over to Japan (probably others, just adding as some crop up other than the 1904-06 horses). 

Jack died unexpectedly, in 1926, at his home at Rushcutter's Bay; he was  only 55 years old. Jack Morton was a great ambassador for Australia and a great purveyor of horses - an ambassador for the best - our mighty Waler.


George Maiden... 
was experienced in pastoral businesses, starting as a drover for the adventure of it all, he worked his way up steadily becoming a station manager. A man who knew what it was like to live in the country, he always did his best for those on the land and was generous and public spirited, never afraid to cross swords with politicians if necessary to see things straight. He inspired confidence in all he met, a good capable man. Full of Aussie ingenuity, in 1888 he also exhibited at Sydney's Centennial Show a patent lever gate he'd invented - showing a child seated in a buggy could easily open and shut the gate without getting out of the buggy, and a person on horseback too, without dismounting. 

George Maiden
Australian Town and Country Journal, 
Sept 1905.


He set up a wool buying and stock business with others, then finally became manager of the firm Goldsborough Mort and Co., Ltd of Sydney. He'd been acting Manager of the firm in Melbourne before that and was called a 'fair and manly' boss and much missed when he left. The firm were stock and station agents and auctioneers. George was 'the king of auctioneers' and specialised in getting top prices for sheep and wool, and raised the profile of Tasmanian sheep especially (the 1,000 guinea ram from Fairfield in 1897 was a sensation!). He was born and lived in NSW, although had some years in Melbourne. When droving, it was said he knew every mile from the top of Queensland to the bottom of Victoria.

George had gone into partnership with Jack Morton to sell horses, chiefly to Japan, they selected good buying agents to purchase from outlying areas throughout Queensland, NSW and Vic., and abided by the opinion of Japanese officers with great respect - the Japanese knew their horses, were polite and professional, cared every step of the way with horse arrangements, and paid well. George got many glowing tributes when he died, a much loved man throughout Sydney and the pastoral world. He also collected for drought relief for farmers, and asked for government help for drought stricken farmers at times. A great philanthropist, he also started a public fund to help bushfire victims. 

He died in September 1905 aged 64 at his home in Manly, of a stroke, leaving six sons and two daughters. His son George also in the business, carried on the auctioning tradition and livestock trading. 



Jules Gascard...
Jules Samuel Gascard was born in Switzerland about 1836. He migrated to Australia and lived in Victoria where he married Jeanette (known as Janet) Barr, born in Scotland 1837. They had four children, Hannah, Augustine, Samuel and Jules. They lived in Gordon (there's a Gascard Lane there) where in 1866 Jules leased out a hotel he owned, then moved to Flemington Road, North Melbourne. Jules senior as well as being in the horse trade, was also a wine merchant.





Jules Gascard's son, also an India buyer - from left, front row on chairs - E. Krerouse, F. Howell, R. Glasscock, H.J. Gidney, Sid Kidman, R. McKenna, J. Gascard, C. G. McMahon.

This photo was taken at the 1903 Kapunda sales, where 2,300 horses were yarded and sold. It was reprinted in the Advertiser in August 1932.

All are India buyers.



Jules bought widely in several states - in 1875 he sold draughts, medium draughts and light harness sorts a total of 62 head at the Royal Horse Bazaar (Melbourne), they'd been ovelanded from S.A. In 1876 he was buying the same types over at Kapunda sales, 50 head plus another 74 a country sale etc. In 1885 at Herggot (S.A.) he bought 138 horses from the Beltana Pastoral Company and sent them to Port Augusta to be shipped on the Bucephalus to India - thought to be the first shipment of horses from that port - in 1886 J. Gascard and Son bought in Qld, at Dalton Station, 150 head; in 1887 he shipped 178 horses from Blanchewater and Myrtle Springs, from Port Augusta on the steamer Port Jackson. Various other loads to India. In 1886 out at Hutchinson's station bidding. 1886 Adelaide horse sales, draughts, mediums and stock horses, all to be overlanded to Victoria. He also bought at Bourke, etc etc. Every year the Gascards traded horses, it was their livlihood. The boys also showed horses, winning with hackneys, buggy and carriage horses and hunters. Son Jules became a judge at horse shows too.

Jules the father was of 'Herculean' build. He'd sent horses to India, then identified a new market over west - he went over to W.A. in the early 1890's, making a move there for work in 1892 (one might call it 'sail-in, sail-out'). In his travels buying and selling horses, a few stories came to light about women he knew - obviously a bit of a lad.

In 1892 he held a big horse sale at Geraldton, it ran over two days and all horses were sold at good prices, some had arrived on the S.S. Flinders from Melbourne while another 142 head arrived on that great horse ship the Clitus, which had as many horses again to carry to Mauritius. The trip from Melbourne to Geraldton had only taken 10 days, and the Clitus at that stage, drawing 21 feet, was one of the biggest ships to trade to Geraldton. Captain Frith spoke highly of the harbour. They were draught types but not pure draughts - good artillery types. Another load arrived on the horse ship Bucephalus, described by the West Australian's Geraldton correspondent as 'small and nuggety, well suited to the work of the district', and better than another load for someone else which arrived on another ship at the same time, which were 'too heavy for the work'. Gascard knew his market, in the same year, 1892, he'd sold fifty draughts in Perth for top prices.

He brought several shiploads of good work horses, mostly draughts and coachers, to W.A. In 1893 he held another successful sale in Geraldton, 40 of these horses had arrived on the s.s. Eddystone, others on the Nemesis. Jules himself went over to Victoria to select the horses, and papers were full of praise, calling them the best W.A. had ever seen, on arrival there. Many others brought horses in to Geraldton but Gascards were regarded as the best.

There was a massive demand for horses as iron ore was carted from the Weld Range to port- over 400 horse teams were used. They needed to be powerful. There were big gold rushes on and mills needed to be carted too, all sorts of machinery and goods.

Jules set up business in the small town of Cue where he had livery stables and a horse bazaar (included stables, fodder, saddlery, wheelwright, blacksmith's shop). His massive coaching stables were in Robinson Street. Gascard set up a famous coaching business which in 1895 also took the mail when he got the contract for 10,000 pounds, the run between Mullewa and Cue. He became known as 'The King of the Road' along the Murchison.


His coaches were soon breaking records for time on runs (Geraldton to Cue 3 days laden, return 41 hours, coachman Richard Webb), and being praised for their splendid teams of horses, and good coaches of Cobb and Co. build. He staged well - changed horses every 15 miles so he could get along at a smart rate - and his feeding methods were also praised because his horses were always in prime condition. W. Grey managed the coach and camel line for some time and was highly regarded.

Gascards coaches carried a ton of mail, literally, each trip, then there were passengers and baggage. A lot of the mail was machinery, gold, ore. To do this at a gallop over dusty roads requires powerful horses.

Many hopeful prospectors got to the Murchison Gold Fields diggings on his coaches, some returned with pockets literally full of gold, including one of my great great uncles! His big run was to Peak Hill, 180 miles away. through Jack's Well, Tuckanarra, Stake Well, Nannine (no Meekatharra then) and Abbott's to Peak Hill; they also did the run to Lawlers, Lake Way (Lake Austin), Yalgee and Day Dawn. He had several mail/coaching runs. His carrying business and livery hired horses and camel teams out.

In 1895 his run from Cue to Mullewa employed 30 people and 100 horses, no grass en route menat he bought fodder. Other runs used more horses - in 1896 he had 400 horses in use. The mails Gascards line carried were then the heaviest in eastern W.A. - usually about a ton per coach - on top of that were passengers, baggage and other goods. Horses had to be strong. When rains meant no coaches could run from Geraldton to Cue, Gascard's camels took people and goods through.

He also bought Annear Station on the North Murchison for horse breeding and a horse depot. In 1898 newspapers reported bodies of two of his drovers were found, perished (died of thirst) and a third one found barely alive. Jules himself hurried to see what had happened, and found his three drovers perfectly safe, and that bodies and rescued person were unemployed men looking for work, who'd sadly died trying to get to Peak Hill.

He died in Geraldton in 1899 of heart problems, aged 66 (although one death notice says 62, so birth dates etc would need verifying); and was taken back to Victoria by his family for burial. A great character, Jules Gascard did much to improve the horses of the area and was very popular, 'a good boss' and much missed.




Lawler coach arrives at Cue. 

source: the Leader, 1898. 

Jules the son was also a horseman, buying for India and local markets and breaking horses to add value. He was also a Councillor for Ballanshire. In 1901 he bought several lots in S.A. and railed them to Victoria for shipping. A regular at the Kapunda sales. Also, judging carriage and buggy horses at Melbourne Show 1909, horses and ponies in 1917. He lived at Ballan. Sadly his brother Samuel died unexpectedly in 1898, although he'd been ill, at Bourke, while there with Jules for horse sales. Samuel and Jules had become 'Gascard Brothers', trading to India; Jules setting up one of the neatest horse training establishments in Australia at Ballan. The family were known for giving generously to charity. Jules' house and gardens were also landmarks of Ballan; he also enlisted and went to WW1 on the ship Shropshire. From 1905 young Jules had held monthly horse sales at his Ballan property. In 1891 he showed a light chestnut roadster stallion that was praised in the papers. In 1903 he paid 100 guineas, a huge price, for a pony stallion named Kentucky. A great Waler family.



Edward Kerouse...
Worked with Henry Madden, buying horses for India - chiefly remounts but also top racehorses. Kerouse himself imported one of the biggest horses ever to come to Australia in the 1880's, named Big Gun. Although called a Shire it was refused registration in the Shire studbook as it had a bit of Clydesdale blood.

In November 1901 it was reported Madden and Kerouse had sent 1,579 horses to India and 4,762 to Africa - total 6,841, in that year alone. In 1904 and 1905 they supplied Japan (Maiden and Morton being the main suppliers, Kerouse and Madden also did a lively trade there, several thousand head). They leased a property called Helensville Estate as a remount depot for their horses awaiting shipment. Rajah's bought from them. They shipped to Madras often.

In 1885 Madden and Kerouse/Kcrouse sent over 600 tram horses to Bombay between January and November, of superior quality and the required age of 4 to 5 years, and height 14.3 to 15.1 hh.



Wolfgang Schmidt...
Theodore Adolph Wolfgang Schmidt, an enterprising character who migrated from Germany in 1904, was keen to make a living although at times he ran into problems. By 1906 he was being referred to as a well known fruitgrower and jam producer, his preserved lemon peel superior to any imported, even from Germany. Most of his produce was exported including to Hong Kong. He exhibited his preserves at the 1907 Castle Hill show but as there were labels on his jars, he could not be given a prize as they were commercial, but a special certificate was presented to him for their excellence.

In 1907 it was reported he was married, owned and played a pianola, was in partnership with a Mr Borneham and liked drinking with his German friends late into the night.

He was a good community man, going to fruitgrowers meetings, the races, being involved with the local football club, exhibiting at local shows, riding to hounds, and so on. 

In 1907 and 1908 he sourced a lot of horses for the German government. Perhaps he over-spent - for March 1909 he took up voluntary bankrupcy proceedings, this dragged on with several hearings until in August he was declared bankrupt by the courts; being the owner of a providore in Baulkham Hills, Sydney. 

He was sold up to pay debtors at his place at Mt Pleasant, Windsor Road, Baulkham Hills; among the sale items were horses, cows, Berkshire pigs, quality sulkies, buggies and carts, harnesses, ploughing implements, chaff cutters, 400 dozen jamjars and a good lightweight hunter named Tranship. Tough time - he lost all means to make a living. In November that year he was found trading while insolvent and running up debt, so the discharge of bankrupcy was extended by a further 2 years. Also that year a pony of his bolted and his wife and baby were tipped out of the sulky, both were ok although Mrs Schmidt was badly bruised. 

In 1910-11 he was co-respondant in a divorce case, he was living with Elsie Tanner (nee Perriman) and they had two children, and he was described as a farmer and shipping providore. This was doubtlessly the woman referred to as his wife in the earlier reports as one of their children was 4 years old in 1910. It was a romantic affair. She had left her shearer husband to be with Wolfgang, travelling over from NZ where they'd gone working, to Wolfgang in 1904 (they must have met not long after Wolfgang's arrival) and leaving her husband in NZ a note saying she never wanted to see him again and that he would never find her. But he came back to Australia two years later and tracked her down, hence eventually the divorce proceeded. Wolfgang was home when this husband turned up, which doubtlessly prevented violence.

Wolfgang also rode with the Sydney Hunt Club (one of his hunters was named Rocket, 1907), and his Tranship got glowing mentions in the hunt reports in the papers.

He worked hard, as well as horse trading he grew fruit and vegetables. He kept busy making his preserves. In 1912 at the Baulkham Hills show he exhibited a patent sterilising device, whereby he preserved fruit and vegetables in airtight jars, they being cooked in the glass as part of the process. This exhibit was the drawcard of the show. Wolfgang said he'd been sending jars of preserved passionfruit to Germany where it was very popular. 

Several times he acted for Germany to buy horses for them - he invariably chose Thoroughbreds rather than Walers, although he relented a bit - there were Walers among loads he sent to Germany in 1911 and 1914, the latter load being for their government army studs plus a few showjumpers. Obviously the Germans were breeding their own types and wanted TB's as sires. He also sent occasional horses to the Philippines and Dutch East Indies. It was reported he'd been an amateur jumps jockey in Germany where he rode in 311 races, 74 of them in 1902; also in England, France and Australia (Queensland 1904), riding at 9 stone 5 pounds; and had been a Lieutenant in the Germany army. 

For a time after arrival in 1904 he ran a riding school at Mosman in Sydney. In 1905 a fire broke out at his stables at upper Baulkham Hills, Sydney, a pony stallion named Little Joe and a sulky were saved, the stables and other effects burned, but were insured. 

Once WW1 came along, he was interred in Langwarrin then Liverpool prisoner of war/ enemy alien camp in Australia in mid 1915. The worst camp of them all, also known as Holsworthy.

A Theodore Schmidt had been naturalised in Queensland in 1904, his birth year was 1875, this sounds like our Wolfgang as in Sydney in 1904 he said he'd ridden a few amateur jumps races in Queensland on arrival. Hence, he was an Australian. His application for removal from the camp was ignored. He must have felt betrayed and terribly worried about his family. 

Sadly for Wolfgang life had been going well - he'd been trading horses, recovered from bankruptcy and getting good business with his preserves, but the war stopped all that. Australia jailed people born in countries we were at war with, and Australians born here with a non-English name - a cruel, stupid policy. There is a photo in archives of Wolfgang, a mugshot taken in 1915, he looks betrayed and sad; and slightly defiant. Wouldn't we all. Shame on us. (bizzarely, he looks very much like the German leader of WW2 so to avoid confusion won't put his mugshot here!) 

It was a time many Australians Anglicised their Germanic surnames or took new English names, to remain safe - although a law was made to stop this. A lot of places here had their names changed too; Blenheim became Collinsvale etc, many such changes.

What happened to Wolfgang after the war is a mystery; will update if found (info very welcome). Probably deported to Germany along with 95% of the men interred at Holsworthy. Only a handful had wives and children with them when deported, most never saw their family again. 

There are no more mentions of him in the news. He disappears. He was a good Aussie battler and he got our horses to some of the best studs in Europe. He sent at least two thousand horses away. Wolfgang worked hard and tried whatever he could to make a living, and at heart he was a horseman. He was as game as Ned and would get on anything, and an accomplished rider, especially over jumps. He was a good community man and family man. Everyone loved and admired a horseman. 

In 1999 our Governor-General apologised to these people. We lost good people, ruined lives, for nothing. Hopefully Wolfgang found work and a home back in Germany, a mess after the war, and his little Australian family were ok. 



W. Woods...
Woods of Toowoomba was one of the last traders, trading well after the trade seemed over. He was an experienced horseman and judged at shows, for example at Warwick in 1928. He sent a big load to India in 1927, mostly from western Queensland, which he championed. He went to the Toowoomba sales every year, and most others throughout Qld. In 1935 he bought at the Longreach sales. In 1934 he bought a lot for India, acting as agent for some for trader Dick McKenna of Melbourne. Lots of other loads. Woods often bought for other traders. 

In 1927 Woods bought horse that had raced on the Darling Downs as a hack, named M.H. He was going to sell it to India but got a good offer and sold it locally (Toowoomba). Soon after, a horse named Shipper was winning races at Longreach. The Longreach Jockey's Club made strenuous enquiries trying to find out if Shipper was previously M.H. The affair remained a mystery, but the name 'Shipper' is intriguing and it was not allowed to race as a novice, M.H. having won far too many races!

Before the second world war he had a good trade to India and elsewhere. After, things drastically changed. He supplied racehorses where wanted, for example to Hong Kong, but chiefly Walers - remounts to India (1949 from the Nebo district), and hacks and ponies for sports clubs to Hong Kong in 1948, 49, 50 and 51. In 1951 he had to cancel an order for 200 horses to Siam as no ship could be found to carry them. It may have been he was getting old, as other shippers usually found ships to take horses, even in those later days. Times had changed and it was harder for some old hands to adjust.

He attended sales at Rockhampton, Chartres Towers, Longreach, Toowoomba and all over Queensland and said in several interviews he was worried horse breeding standards would drop as so many good horses were going for slaughter - he was always competing with slaughtermen at sales in those times. Horses were dirt cheap and Europe was starving after the war. The meat trade was huge, sending up to 1,000 tons of horsemeat from Queensland weekly to the UK and Europe. Many other horses were killed for pig and dog food. The horrible inglorious end of a great trade.

Before the war he got horses in Springsure, Nebo, Clermont and Chartres Towers districts. 

After WW2 he had trouble filling orders as most had gone to slaughter. There had been 8 lean years for horse trading - the commerical trade petered out during the long war years, and for 3 years after he couldn't find a ship with free space to carry horses, as commerical trading got back into swing and ships were always full.

In 1952 he couldn't fill all of an order for New Guinea for riding and pack horses, and had to get draughts from NSW. Horses could no longer be loaded at some places, the horse yards and ramps pulled down at the docks, he had to take them to Pinkenba or Gladstone.

So people still wanted horses although not as many as before - but breeders had turned to other things like cattle, ships too. Woods was one of the last to send our horses away and a good advocate for the trade. A voice in the wilderness. 


William A. Jones... 
A veterinary surgeon of Melbourne, he shipped race and polo ponises away, to India  Siam, Java, Singapore, Hong Kong, the South Sea Islands including New Caledonia etc. He travelled over East with them at times. Was still actively shipping in the 1930's. 

He bought in Vic, S.A., NSW and Queensland. In a 1922 interview when he shipped 400 horses to Madras, he explained the Indian market and how polo ponies were sold by being ascribed a number, and members of the regimental teams pulling numbers from a hat to determine which pony they got - there was a flat club price; a subscription ballot. Polo clubs also held gymkhanas at which the ponies were raced, among other activities.


John 'Jack' A. Duval... 
Born in Nundle NSW, he became a champion jockey in NSW then began training and horse trading. He started as a jockey very young, and rode in countless races - there were pony races every day of the week in those days, and several tracks around Sydney, most unregistered (the horses did not have to be registered Thoroughbreds).  

In 1895 he was riding at 8 stone 10 pounds (55.3 k's). In 1899 he was hospitalised after a bad fall from a horse.  He rode in pony races as well as horse races. He started trading, probably while still a jockey, a wise transition, as was the move into training. He was an ace trainer.

1907 he sent 21 horses to Singapore. He supplied top quality horses and ponies to many places. He also kept up training racehorses. In 1910 he sent 8 horses over.  In 1911 he came over from Singapore to buy horses. He'd been back and forth, based by then in Singapore.

In 1912 there was a divorce, written up in the papers with no regard for privacy, in the days it wasn't easy to get a divorce. Divorce was granted, he got custody of the sole child. It was mentioned he'd spent some time in Singapore when married, and went back there while separated; and liked to gamble.

A racehorse was named after him, and a race pony - both called Duval, and both good runners. In 1915 and 16 he was training racehorses in Durban, and Johannesburg, South Africa.

He sent polo, race and cavalry ponies to the East, also racehorses and hacks and he travelled over with them usually. 

1928 he took half a dozen racehorses, 5 top ponies including Dolly Kenilworth and carriage horses to Singapore.
1928 he went to Siam and China with a load of 12 for Bangkok and 17 for Taiping. He was taking two special horses for the Sultan of Johore, Malaya, on that trip too. There were polo ponies on the same load going over for others. At times he sent horses to Madras, possibly other India ports. 

He moved to Singapore but came back to Sydney at times buying horses, he bought 25 in 1933 on a trip back. In 1935 he was training a team of 40 horses at Kuala Lumpar for A. van Tooren, a multi-millionaire, and doing well in the Malay states, based at the Selangor Turf Club. They trained and raced griffins, ponies and horses, having great success.

Duval was winning more money for his owner in 1939 that any other - leading trainer. As trainer, Duval won the Singapore Cup 1930, 31 and 36.  In 1934 5 of the ponies and horses one at one meeting. 

He was the brother of well known jockey Frank Duval, they had Aboriginal heritage. Frank too travelled overseas to work, to Africa 2 years and India 4 years, ending up in S.E. Asia for a time then returning to Australia. He'd met up with Jack in South Africa and rode for him. Jack also trained in India for a time with Frank riding. Frank also traded the occasional horse, in 1919 he sent two to Singapore on the Houtman.

Jack Duval is buried in Kuala Lumpar. Great Australians. Jack supplied top horses and had an excellent reputation, he supplied horses to the Sultan of Johore among others. There was an article on his brother Frank in 1951, Frank was 70 and still training a horse, his whole life had been spent with horses. In this interview, he said there were 11 children and their parents died when Frank was aged 3. Frank broke the high jump record on Landlock, jumping 7 feet 4 inches at Quirindi show; also an ace cross country rider. more info


Daniel James Avery...
was probably Western Australia's biggest horse exporter, origionally from New York he migrated about 1875 to Western Australia. He operated out of Perth, and had almost 20 years sending horses away. He was one of the very few horse traders who became owner of his own ships. The Janet, a well known schooner in WA took many loads to Mauritius, Ceylon and Singapore for him. In 1888 she was wrecked almost home to Fremantle from Colombo, with no livestock on board and no loss of life but a full cargo of furniture and bran sacks; Avery had to fight the insurance company in court to recover costs. 

Enterprising, hard working, a good horseman and business man. In 1875, in Perth, Daniel James Avery of New York, wed Eliza, the third daughter of James Austin of Perth, and widow of James Roston of Manchester, England. She was to accompany him on many of his voyages delivering horses, taking the children along too.

Some of many loads... 1876 he took horses to Singapore in the Spinaway. 1877 a load on the barque Amur to Java, reached from Fremantle in a speedy 12 days. 1879 he took horses in the Bessie from Fremantle and picked more up at Geraldton on the way to Batavia. 1883 in June he sent a load to Mauritius. In December 1884 he took 88 to Batavia, among them a beautiful pony named "Young Strike" for which he'd paid 70 guineas. In 1885 he was buying in Victoria Plains and the Vasse areas, in March he sent two shiploads of 83 horses on each ship to Mauritius, on the Janet and the Star Queen. Prices were not good so he took the Janet's load onward to Ceylon and got a better result. 

1884 he took 88 on the Janet with 5 ostlers to Guam (yes, well...!). He often cleared out for Guam. In that year, the horse exporting partnership of Matthew Price and C. Ogbourn was dissolved - all debts to be sent to Daniel Avery. Price had gone on trips with the horses. Ogburne often went away as an ostler for Avery, in charge of horses on his ships, including after this, so they were on very good terms.

1886 100 horses went on the Janet to Mauritius, described in the pnews as 'truly splendid.' The little ship also carried an immense load of fodder for them, Avery's arrangments for stock and cargo on board being highly praised, he rarely lost a horse on his trips. He was experienced in coastal shipping of horses too, bringing them to and from the north. In 1887 he paid a massive 250 pounds for two racehorses to export. He always sought good matched pairs of horses for carriages and for work horses, and good hacks, and would pay good prices.

1888, in April out of 124 for Singapore he lost 6 due to excessive heat and calm on the way; unusual for him to lose horses. He was insured with the Horse Owners Mutual Insurance Company. In November the Bittern took 118 horses to Guam (!) for him; his wife and two children went with him. He also sent 120 on the steamer Australind to Mauritius, intended for the Janet, but she'd been wrecked. 

He took many loads from Cossack, and often took a couple of local squatters along for the ride to help his ostlers with the horses, so they could see where their horses went, dropping them back to Cossack on the way home from Singapore, Sourabaya, wherever they took the horses too.

1889 a load of 77 horses to Mauritius in April per Star Queen got good prices. In 1890 he suffered a loss when the Bittern burned out in Java, he'd delivered a good load of horses and was paid in gold, which sank with the ship. His wife was with him; all lives were saved. As the ship was insured for the outward trip only and had touched at Batavia, he was not covered.

...many more loads away, at least four shiploads a year - usually more - as soon as Daniel got home he set out buying more horses and often sent two loads away at once, always going with one load himself. 

He also raced horses, usually these were Walers, being described as colonial bred with no other breeding records - one such, his aged gelding Robin, was in several match races for him in 1887 in Perth plus races in fields of up to 10 horses. Robin won 200 pounds for Daniel in one match race, decribed as remarkably fast. 

In 1890 he owned a brigantine named E. & H. Avery which was shipping horses for him. He'd been liquidated for big debts that year, but must have recovered enough to own this vessel. 

Daniel met an untimely death on 29th December, 1892. He was only 43 years old. He'd bought bottles of strychnine and medicine that day from the same chemist; they were in identical bottles. The strychnine was for rats on two of his horse ships. Two empty botles were found in his pocket after his death. The coroner could not find a cause for his death. Daniel left a widow and children. He had some life insurance and the brigantine E & H Avery was sold a few months after his death. His wife Eliza, who died in 1924, aged 83, had a glowing tribute in the paper, being kindly, cheerful and a worker for the Anglican church. She four children, at least one by her first marriage and either two or three with Daniel. 

A good horse trader who put WA on the map for horse supply to several countries, and a great sailor and skipper who took sailing ships with great skill into and out of difficult ports, across the oceans in all weathers, and almost never lost a horse; most of his loads arrived with every single horse alive and in superb condition. A great horse trader.




Sir Rupert Havelock Clarke, Bart.... 
Born into wealth which included several large properties as well as inheriting a baronetcy, Sir Rupert was as enterprising as his ancestors. He tried many ventures - among them the India trade. His grandfather was known as "Big Clarke" - Sir William was the biggest landowner in Australia at his death in 1874. Born in Australia, Rupert was educated at Oxford. He inherited the title on his father's death in 1897

Rupert Clarke in the uniform of his family's Rupertswood Battery of Horse Artillery.
The Leader, May 1897.


In 1899, interviewed as a load of his horses was shipped for Colombo, Rupert said the government army buyers in Madras got all their horses from three major Australian horse traders; hence his market was private sales to Indians, which by far exceeded army sales anyway, for all traders.

Rupert's horse trading to India got bigger in 1898 after the Victoria Racing Club rubbed him out as owner - through no fault of his own. They scratched all his horses in forthcoming races such as the Grand National. The VRC was ruthlessly making a monopoly, barring all who raced ponies and horses at unregistered meetings. This led to Thoroughbreds being the only horses allowed to race. Rupert bought two ponies, Metallica and Silver Bell. Unknown to him Metallica had formerly raced at unregistered meetings, and Silver Bell too, a day or two after he bought her. In fact - he didn't know he owned her - an agent of his, T. J. Burke, an honest man, bought her among others for India. 

The VRC re-instated Rupert after half an hour, but spitefully, his horses remained scratched. He was quietly disgusted, withdrew his committee nomination and vowed never to race a horse again in Victoria. He was a man of his word. As fate had it, his father Sir William, also a great horseman and horse breeder, had turned his back on racing after decades dedicated to it, and sold up his stud, after a similar experience (in his case, his horses being used without his knowledge for race fixing).

Rupert sold Metallica and Silver Bell to India. They did not travel alone. He sent shiploads over. The VRC caused the loss of top bloodlines, much lamented in Victoria. Burke who took Rupert's horses to India, bought two expensive Arab stallions which he sent home to Rupert - Hussar and White Czar, which had won many races.

Then Burke died unexpectedly in Madras, before the horses were sold. Much upset at the loss of this good man who had been fluent in Hindustani, Rupert went over immediately to support Burke's wife, and sell the horses. His next load went with horseman Harry Looney, an employee on his estates who was the coachman, a hunting man, member of his Rupertswood Artillery. A team of six matched creams and another of six matched greys were in the first load of 220 horses sent in July (he sent two loads that month). Another load went over in December. In time the two stallions Burke had bought proven successful, their progeny gaining top prices for Rupert, when shipped to India.

 In late 1899 Glasscock acted as his agent and travelled to Madras with his horses to sell. At least half the horses Rupert sent away, he'd bred himself. He liked stylish horses. He sent two loads a year over for several years, all top class. The discerning and wealthy Nizam of Deccan was one of his customers.

Sir Rupert Clarke in later life.
Photo from Table Talk, May 1917
Clarke was invalided out of the army from active service in Greece, and sent home. He'd tried to join up here but was refused on medical grounds - malaria, bad hip - so had travelled to England to join up, determined to help in the war. He served until they decided he was too ill.


Rupert had a Yorkshire Coacher stallion on his Victorian property Rupertswood, for breeding India horses - he found matched carriage horses of about 16 hands fetched the very best prices, followed by hacks and smart cobs. He sent teams of six-in-hand horses away, many bred by himself. He was a keen hunting man. He showed a Roadster stallion named Bounding Willow in the 1898 Melbourne Royal, and got first prize. It had so much style crowds rushed to the rails when it was trotted around. In 1897 he showed a heavyweight hackney stallion named Courage, second to Charles Glasscock's The Squire; and showed a light hackney stallion named Trooper, second to Charlie Gidney's. Hence only just beaten by two of the best horsemen in Victoria - both India traders.

Rupert eventually moved to Sydney. He went on an exploration of New Guinea in 1914 where he contracted malaria, it affected him for the rest of his life. Sometime after WW1 he moved to England. While his home there was being built he went to his house on Monte Carlo, also for his health. He died there on Christmas Day, 1926, of a heart attack, aged only 61. 
Rupert always gave generously to charity and personally helped many people when down on their luck; it was said his hand was always in his pocket. The Clarke family were always very generous both personally and to charities and good causes. Rupert had many interests, among them sailing and the theatre, and was a good business man. He lived life to its fullest.

A marvellous family. The horses Rupert shipped to Colombo and India were described as the best ever sent from Australia. High praise indeed!



Wilhelm August (Bill) Steinwedel...
Breeder of horses. Steinwedel lived at Balaclava, South Australia. He bought and sold draughts and light types and bred for the working horse market, creating his own type that bred on. His draughts sold well. He was born in Australia, there was a brother H. Steinwedel and several sisters. His father immigrated from Germany, arriving 1852, becoming a well known wheat farmer in the days of horse power. He developed the Steinwedel strain of wheat which became the most widely grown in S.A.

Photo: The News (Adelaide), July 1949.

Bill held his own annual sale at Balaclava and bought at Kapunda when he wanted new blood; he also sold at Kapunda, Kadina and Riverton. In his late years he went into secondhand farming machinery and equipment. There were several family members, all involved with horse breeding, working horses, showing and racing in South Australia.  F. Steinwedel was with the 9th Light Horse in WW1. 

He showed horses and also wrote for the papers about agricultural matters including horse care. Although he doesn't appear to send any overseas, he's a good example of those supplying good horses for the traders with export licences, over a long time, and keeping standards up by showing as well as working his horses. He supplied a good 300 heavy horses a year to the market. When he died in 1952, there were thousands of out moded wagons and horse farm items on his property. His wife Mary had pre-deceased him.


Sid Kidman...
Sir Sidney Kidman, born in 1857, is the subject of books, as he should be, having worked his way up from nothing to being the biggest land owner in the world. He started a coaching line in partnership with Jimmy Nicholas which broke the monopoly of Cobb and Co - he knew his horses. Soon he got into property.


Sir Sidney Kidman
source

Some of the properties he bought had India horses on them, so he decided to see what they were worth. He started a sale at Kapunda to sell them to India buyers and whoever else wanted them. It turned into an annual event and Kidman found good horses could be worth as much as cattle, sometimes a lot more. Of course, he bred hundreds of thousands of cattle, and there was no way that many horses would sell annually, so horses remained a fun sideline that was lucrative - and he had a great social life with the horsemen who came. 

Kidman was a teetotaller and didn't smoke or swear. He gave generously to charity but was frugal otherwise. He stood 6 feet tall, and was affable, much respected among bushmen. He sacked anyone who hurt a horse.

He rode tremendous distances to see his property managers on various stations; and put a lot of bores in across country to make stock routes. He used to ride a skewbald pony down the street in Kapunda in the 1880's, standing on its back, he could make it lie down with a single command, and rise again when he commanded, and he remained standing in the saddle. His cheerful banter at sales was a great attraction and made it a lot of fun. When a weed came in (light sorts) that wouldn't sell, he'd run around after it, calling out 'sixpence for charity!' Several light sorts all named Charity were thus bought cheaply and he always gave the proceeds to charity. Artillery sorts got top prices. 


He made many friends through the horses, and the sales helped the career of many traders. He went to India with them for a jaunt, and improved the horses on several of his stations, getting excellent prices for them at his sales and supplying various orders. He had brought Owen Downs station where two Suffolk Punch stallions had been put to breed for India, and Eringa where another Suffolk stallion of Thomas Elders had run. In 1905 he went to a sale of Dangar's Suffolks in Sydney and bought an expensive colt, this was taken to Eringa Station. Kidman also bought the thoroughbred stallion Lucknow. Lucknow was by Strahan foaled in 1889 - from there his breeding was unknown. He also bought Light Artillery for 150 guineas, and other winning TB stallions such as St Carlo, Sir Simon, St Spasa (a success at stud), Denacre, Inchaquire, Aides and Passing By. Aides was bred in Hungry and cost 3,500 guineas, it stayed on the stud where it died suddenly in 1924. He owned several TB mares of good race lines and bred them to top stallions for racers; his TB stud was called Fulham Park stud. His imported bay horse Silvius won some good races. He put Light Artillery on Coogy station to breed India horses, where it eventually died in 1909. He bought the Banzai TB stud at Hilton S.A. when it dispersed and sent the stallion Banzai and some good mares to Norley station in Queensland, retaining other mares for his own stud. Bloodlines of his horses also went to his stations, Passing By (a solid horse) and St Spasa descended mares went to his stations to breed Walers for India, their lines much favoured. He liked racing and was a good sport, pleased when his friends won instead of himself. He lost interest in it eventually, his later years passing the racing side over to his son and son-in-law. He'd had some good wins.

On Mundownda, 20 circus ponies, bought when Ireland's Circus folded up, had been put to breed up. They soon multiplied and made good ponies. Kidman bought the station, ran them in and sold many at Kapunda. They threw to the blue-grey and white colours of the originals.

In 1910 2,400 horses were put through his Kapunda sales, the largest number at a sale in Australia. Excellent prices were obtained.

In 1919 he said horses were overstocked in much of Central Australia, a friend of his just shot 2,400 there. Horses were trapped, shot and left to rot, Kidman said it was a waste of hundreds of thousands of horses that could be sent as meat to countries like France where they eat horse. Horse numbers needed to be managed. There were several horses sales in Adelaide that year, prices were moderate. Kidman sent over 1,000 horses to several sales that year to reduce his numbers and got fair prices.

Kidman supplied buyers who came directly to him such as some Philippines based North American army officers, and our army. He donated many horses to our army for WW1, and when he moved into Adelaide donated his substansial house at Kapunda,'Eringa" to the government for a public high school; the next day he was knighted.

Sir Sidney Kidman died in 1935, leaving a wife, three daughters and a son. A great Australian and wonderful man, who did an immense amount for our horse industry, and left a great legacy with his property empire.


Phillip Charley... of Broken Hill Company fame, is worth a mention for bringing so many top coaching and roadster stallions to Australia for India breeding. He also brought in many top class Cleveland mares. 


Frank Beasley... 

lived at Emerald Queensland. He bought and traded to India and also bought for other traders , and officers such as those from Java who came here for horses. He bought big numbers, one of Queensland biggest buyers.. He went up to Mackay for several hundred a season, and out to western Queensland. He had his own depot at the Duck Ponds, Comet, near Emerald, where basic handling such as tying up, teaching to lead, and grooming was done, as well as sorting them into classes regarding quality and intended use, before the horses were sent away. He usually had about 1,000 horses there which were sent away in two or three batches. One of his dovers was named Hoey, Hoey took horses from Emerald down to Moree in NSW for Beasley, buying a few more along the way for him. Frank sold his property at Emerald, Langley Downs, in July 1927, although he still had a lease on some land in the area. He went to India with his horses and spent up to 6 months there. At Rockhampton Show he provided cash prizes for the winners of the cavalry horse class. At times he went buying horses around Queensland with his friend the horse trader J. O'Donaghue, who had a strong Irish acent and forthright manner of speaking. They both went to Rockhampton in 1931 for example. Frank also judged at Rockhampton Show.


Stephen Stanley Ralli (1863-1941)...
Stephen Ralli was educated at Eton, his family was orgionally Greek, they had settled in France, then England becoming immensely successful merchants and had connections with Calcutta in the family business of jute, grain etc. 

For two years after his education finished Stephen was a coachman - driving being highly fashionable he went into a coach partnership, they ran the coach from London to St Albans. Then he came to Australia.

Ralli became a jackeroo on Nockatunga Station in Queensland. When his parents bought Werocata Station for him, he rode down there from Nockatunga on a strong white cob named Moses - a journey of over a thousand miles. When Moses died of old age, Ralli buried the cob beside his home.



Ralli & Co. (name of his business).
Stephen Ralli and family in Adelaide, 1910
State Library of Victoria.

Ralli himself broke horses, once breaking 100 to get his fare to England to ask his parents about buying Werocana. He introduced Shropshire sheep to South Australia too. Ralli raced a few steeplechasers (his Charcoal won the Great Eastern) but his main horse interest was breeding polo ponies - he used four Arab pony sires that became famous - Marvel, Snow, Grayling and the very popular Brat. All four had been brought out from Calcutta, The Brat and Marvel by Billy Burgess and Grayling by Jimmy Mullins. They all had plenty of bone  (one wonders what the criteria of "Arab' was!). Horseman Walter Tidswell also trained horses for Ralli on Werocata.

Ralli introduced English foxhounds to South Australia with his 'Werocata harriers' - green coat and red collar and red buttons. His full pack of 52 hounds were bought in Ballarat.  The property was set up with capped fences for hunts, and great fun was had hunting. Queen Victoria's staghound master, Ike Theyer, came out to be his hunt club Master. Ralli also showed horses including jumping classes. He rode regularly with the Adelaide Hunt Club for many years. A steeplechase race was named after him, the Ralli Hunters Steeplechase.

The Brat, a chestnut, had raced in India for 10 years, winning 32 races. He stood 13 hands one and threequarter inches (just shy of 13.2hh). One of his foals, Seelani, named after the Blessed Mare of the Prophet, won polo pony prizes, pony hack, single harness and finally pony brood mare classes in South Australia.

Ralli sent shiploads of his ponies to India, at times with Jimmy Mullins, head stockman on Werocata, in charge. Jimmy Mullins was Clerk of the course for Balaclava Racing Club too. He like halfbreds and that's what he bred for India. Dan Vaughan and C. Greig were among his horse breakers.

As well as his own ponies and horses, he bought horses from other stations to send to India. His business was Ralli & Co. In 1890 he shipped 300 horses and ponies on the great horse ship Bucephalus, in Adelaide. All came from great horse stations. They were bought wild and sent to his station Werocana for breaking, which added value and made them easier to handle in shipping. Ralli employed 15 full time men on his station - all horsemen. Some of his men always went to India with the horses. At shearing time he had 40 working there. In 1892 he shipped a big load on the famous horse ship Clitus - remounts, artillery horses, hacks and polo ponies.

He was a good rider and in a race on polo ponies at the end of a polo season, he rode a friend's pony for him, Kitty. Unbeknown to Stephen, his friend, the popular Joe (J.M.) Gordon had bet on another pony - and lost 300 pounds when Kitty won! Stephen also found Gordon - a Scot with the fabulous and unlikely name of'Jose Maria Jacobo Rafael Ramon Francisco Gabriel Del Corazon De Jesus Gordon y Prendergast - a great horse to take to the Boer War, which Gordon named Bismarck. Same family as the great Australian poet Adam Lindsay Gordon. Joe Gordon later became a General, Australian army, a grand old horseman and loved by all.

In 1900 Stephen was at Port Pirie buying horses but despite extensive seaching, most were too weedy (demand was huge that year), and he only got a few there but at surprisingly low prices. Most years he sent loads away, all schooled beautifully.

Stephen did a great job of finding horses for our men going to the Boer War, and with his men was invaluable helping load massive shipments of horses onto trains and ships the Surrey, Manhattan, Maplemore and others, for South Africa. He worked in dungarees himself, with a knee heavily bandaged from a hunt accident not slowing him down when loading for the Maplemore - Ralli always worked as hard as his men, even in the smithy on his farm. The work of he and his team was greatly admired, professional and kindly to the horses with their welfare paramount. By the time the Manhattan docked and the horses were entrained from country yards, then loaded on ship, he and his crew were exhausted and put the last 40 horses on the deck for the soldiers to take to stalls themselves - after all the soldiers were getting paid and were fresh as a daisy. This apparently led to several loud 'soldiers prayers' for Ralli's men! Stephen donated 3 good mules for transport to a South Australian contingent. He also donated he and his men's labour at Boer War time. He paid his men out of his own pocket. Somehow he found time to run his station, ccontinue horse trading and showing his horses and sheep!

Stephen's brother, Major Antonio Stephen Ralli, was at the Boer War with his English regiment, the 12th Lancers; tragically he died there of enteric fever, at Kroonstad in May 1900.

Stephen had an excellent eye for a horse and liked plenty of bone. He supplied top price artillery and remount horses, in 1903 being described as South Australia's largest exporter of horses. He generously donated 14 acres of Werocata to the local Agricultural Society, for holding the annual Balaclava Show, among other pursuits. It was the best show in SA outside Adelaide.

Daniel Walter Vaughan, the son of James Vauhan, an Angaston pioneer from England, did several trips to India with Ralli's horses. Daniel died aged 80 in 1944.




The horse trade with India. Mr S.S. Ralli's horses yarded for shipment.
Chronicle (Adelaide) 1903.

Ralli bought the first car in the Balaclava area - steered with a tiller - and took it to schools for children to have rides in. He moved to Young in NSW for a time then retired to England, where he originally came from when young. When he went to England, he married Miss Ada Beck, her father was Colonel Charles Beck of a famous regiment. He brought her out to see Werocata, which was sold by then - to his surprise she loved it and wished he hadn't sold it! They had three sons. Stephen died in England.


Photo - Joe Martyr aged 71
The Register (Adelaide) 1928.

When no-one else could get horses in, in tough country, they called on Joe Martyr. 


Joe Martyr brought in a lot of horses sent to India from the bush, sending them to Adelaide by rail or droving. He did contract mustering and droving, both cattle and horses. India men and landowners and managers got him to bring horses in. He was a top breaker too, working at times for Stephen Ralli on Werocata Station near Balaclava, South Australia

He once mustered 5,000 excellent horses on Blanchewater Station, South Australia, after others there tried for weeks and only caught a mare and foal. He got great prices for the landowners, as he chose the best from the mobs and negotiated with India buyers for higher prices for these. Ralli bought many of the best and paid handsomely. Of those 5,000 horses some got 100 pounds - outstanding money. They were descendants of the famous TE horses there - Thomas Elder's original breeding. 
Joe also taught the horses to lead for a fee of two shillings and 7 pence a head, an offer gladly taken up. 
Joe was still riding at 71. He was interviewed by the great horse artist Septimus Power.

What simply amazing men!




~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 




Companies 


Thacker and Company... were shipping agents but actively advertised to ship horses too. Sent thousands away in from early days of the trade, 1840's on. Based in Sydney.

Western Australian Livestock Export Company, Pty. Ltd.  did a lively trade. In 1953 for example sent 250 griffins and ponies to Siam.


Australian Agricultural Company.
This well known and large company was established in 1824. It soon held vast lands, most by grant. The company is still going. In the early days, breeding and selling horses to India was part of their business. They imported stacks of top quality horses, Thoroughbreds, coachers, Cleveland Bays, Welsh Ponies (all in the 1820's!) and more, and also used the best of colonial stallions and mares bred from the same sort of mix and Chile horses, Timor pony, roadster, draught. At first their sales boomed but by the late 1840's they got their fingers burned with bad trips and by the early 1850's went out of horses and concentrated on sheep and cattle. Keith Binney has done a top job of putting all the bloodlines and stories of the company into his book 
Horsemen of the First Frontier, about the TB in Australia. The AACo has a webpage.

The Pastoral Finance Association. NSW. for example they sent 100 horses to India in 1895. Shipped many loads overseas.

Northern Australian Horse Export Company. Qld. Shipped a lot overseas. R. Gordon in charge at times. Horse buyer Baldock gave them a lot of help and encouragment, stopping in Qld (Bowen etc) to put horses on ship for them, and bought horses from them in the 1880's, helping open up the big Qld trade.

Beltana Pastoral Company. South Australia. Supplied horses.

Australia-Bengal Company. sent ppl out here from India 1840's on to settle and breed horses. Some Arab stallions came with them,

Anglo-Indian Company. got excited in 1872 when the Viceroy and Nizam both promised to buy large numbers of Australian horses at good prices.

others... updating


~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 


HORSE BAZAARS

All around Australia horse bazaars were famous landmarks. Horses were an important part of fashion. People liked to be seen at the bazaars; coffee shops, tea rooms, bars, boxing saloons, harness makers, carriage builders, blacksmiths, vets, livery stables, riding apparel shops, horse breakers; all sorts of peripheral businesses opened nearby. Bazaars became huge complexes of several businesses. It was a place to parade your driving skills and horses. Horses could be baited (fed and watered) - a handy service for those from afar.

Importantly, auctions were held regularly and horse buyers for the overseas trade were big bidders.  Among the most famous were Kiss' in Sydney, Kirks in Melbourne, John Bulls in Adelaide and the Sovereign in Brisbane. There were many others; will add as time allows...

The biggest Horse Bazaar in the world in 1905 was Cook and Co. in India, managed by surgeon Dr. Adams. Australian horses were popular there.

Tattersalls Horse Bazaar, Melbourne, 1853.
State Library of Victoria

'A Sketch at Kirk's Bazaar.'
Melbourne. Wood engraving by Alfred Martin Ebsworth, 1889.


Victoria... 

Kirk's Bazaar... in west Bourke Street - number 47 - also called ' the wild west' was started in 1840 by James Bowie Kirk.

It was an amazing place of many substantial buildings, palatial livery stables, exercise yards, a jumps course, carriage builders, fodder merchants, harness supplies and more. A giant glass dome featured over part of it. Brown's Horse Bazaar was next door and became part of it. McCulloch and Campbell's Bazaar was over the road, in 1872 they took over Kirk's too (possibly building only) - although Glasscock's had taken it over in 1870 and had the livery stables and sales for many years.

Every August was a big stallion and mare parade then sale - 200 stallions were often led around. Massive crowds attended. Horses bought went all over Australia and many went overseas. Any horsey visitor to Australia went to Kirks as a pilgrimage.

People met here to buy horses and show off their riding prowess. Toffs rubbed shoulders with grooms, soldiers of proud regiments chatted with coachmen. The famous horseman George Watson had it for a time. Among the buildings were a hotel and a boxing establishment for sporting types, boxing being highly fashionable. It was the premier horse selling place in Victoria. Several notable owners, including the Yuille family who started and ran the Australian Stud Book (TB's), bought and sold there. Sadly in 1925 Kirks was sold off and demolished.


The Wodonga sales were also big in Victoria, in 1902 over 900 horses being auctioned there. The rail went through to carry horses to ships.

Victoria Horse Bazaar, Bourke Street, Melbourne, c 1900.
State Library of Victoria.

Queensland...

Sovereign, Brisbane
Warby's, Adelaide Street Brisbane
Rutherfords, Rockhampton
Toowoomba

NSW... 

Kiss' Horse Bazaar in Sydney, as discussed under George Kiss, was legendary and ran over generations of the Kiss family.
Cosgroves, Sydney
The Maitland Horse Bazaar, Maitland.
Stewart's Horse Bazaar, Sydney
Martyn's Horse Bazaar, Sydney

formatting out of my control sorry, text size in parts of blog

South Australia... 


In Adelaide several fine horse bazaars thrived. John Bull Bazaar, Formby and Boase, Royal Horse Bazaar, John Paltridge and Co. ...


In 1877 William Harper Formby and Joseph Boase turned the old Royal Victoria Theatre, previously Queen's Theatre, into a horse bazaar. It was an amazing transformation with the crowd accommodated up in the former galleries and private boxes and the horses paraded before the proscenium. Formby and Boase Horse Bazaar prospered tremendously. India buyers attended. 

The Bazaar was in Light Square, off Currie street, with good access down Gillies Arcade to run unbroken horses in, and handled horses. First auction December 1877. 


W.H. Formby was a keen rider to hounds with the Adelaide Hunt Club, raced horses, officiated at steeplechases etc; Boase had been a horse breaker and amateur jockey and hunted with the AHC. Real horsemen.



Formby, who lived at Metala, Langhorne's Creek, died in 1892 aged 74. Boase died in 1898 aged 56, his son Charles at the time was manager of the Bazaar. The Bazaar was sold and briefly became Allen's Horse Bazaar, then John Paltridge and Co. bought it from Hugh Chambers' estate for 6,000 pounds, spent another 2,000 upgrading the yards and continued the tradition of selling great horses and thriving themselves from it. Paltridge's ran the reknown Mt Barker horse sales among others.

John Bull hotel and sale yards were nearby in Currie Street, and became the famous John Bull Bazaar. Barker Brothers ran it. India buyers bought here too. Up to 200 horses a day could be auctioned. At Spring Show time the auction ran over several days, with a stallion sale. Stallions paraded down Currie Street.  Barker Brothers ran several other large horse sales around the state.


John Barker went into business with Hugh Chambers, their premises in Grenfell Street 1877-1885. They bought the John Bull Bazaar and set up there in 1885. Chambers died in 1894. Frank Cornelius then joined Barker in business but he died soon after in 1896. After that John took his brother Alfred J. Barker (known as Joker) into the business, then known as Barker Bros. John's son A.E. Barker joined them. John Barker was involved with racing and gave generously to charity all his life, known for donating to funds throughout the war, and the Red Cross. He died in 1925. Barker Brothers sold tens of thousands of horses over the years. John lived at Baldina, Prospect. 

The Royal Horse Bazaar was opened by S. Bernard in 1881 in Currie Street, 200 horses a day could be auctioned there.

The Kapunda Horse Bazaar opened in 1877, long before Kidman's sale..





Western Australia...




Tattersalls Horse Bazaar was in St George's Terrace, in Perth. A substansial building. From the early twentieth century it was owned by J.P. O'Hara who also raced horses. 

Smiley's Horse Bazaar was in Bury Street.

The Central Horse Bazaar in Wellington Street was a big complex and booming business. It caught fire in 1896 and several attached businesses were destroyed. It was rebuilt and horse auctioning continued.

The City Horse Bazaar opened in 1907 at the corner of Harvey and Throssel St., livery stables, breaking etc part of it...

Cockram's Horse Bazaar in Pier Street and the W.A. Horse Bazaar in Sterling street both sold draughts, draught crosses, hunters and good work horses, carriage horses, buggy ponies.

The Victoria Horse Bazaar was in Wellington Street. In 1907, run by Mr. H.C. Scott, they had the latest modernity of a telephone number (333) and advertised full livery services - harness vehicles for sale and hire, baiting, and the best horses for sale to anyone desiring one and horses for hire.

Horses went to Mauritius from WA regularly, starting in 1843 (possibly earlier), many shiploads going to Mauritius and Singapore, and India starting to kick in - in 1849 the John Bagshaw took a load to Calcutta. W.A. was the main supplier to Mauritius. 

W.A. sent horses away early in good amounts and helped open up big horse markets. The 1840's through to the end of the nineteenth century their horse trade was sound. Their strong little coastal ships that were shallow draught meant horses were brought from the north to Freo for export, or Geraldton.  These little ships could get into harbours big ships couldn't. Thus horses went from Cossack, Bunbury, Geraldton etc as well as Perth/Fremantle.

In the 1870's WA was the chief supplier to Singapore and the Straits Settlements - the big upstanding, handsome carriage horses sent to Singapore were highy praised there. Ships the Zephyr, Sea Ripple, Laughing Wave, Janet, Macquarie, Annie Brown, Fleur de Maurice, Spinaway, Sea Ripple, Formosa, Rollo, Iris and Pet were among those taking horses to Singapore and Colombo in the 1870's. Horses went from Perth, Champion Bay (Geraldton), Cossack and Port Walcott. 

Pet and Fleur de Maurice arrived in Singapore with full loads of horses at the same time in 1879, all horses in good condition, well fed, sound and groomed - but they'd taken mostly mares. In Singapore horses sold well but mares did not - reported back home in the papers as a lesson to others. A good load from the Formosa sold well, rich Chinese were the main buyers of horses; only extra good horses sold but paid very well. Horse sent to Singapore usually went to the Horse Repository under the care of Mr Abrams, praised many times in WA newspapers for his care of the horses before sale there.  

WA also sent good horses early to Madras - in 1850 a W.A. horse there owned by Major Bush was sold for an amazing 300 pounds and went on to win good races in Calcutta, its name was Garoogin. In 1880 a WA horse named Bas-Blanc carried off all racing honours in Penang.

Colombo (Ceylon), Calcutta, Bombay, various ports in the Dutch East Indies were all markets for WA horses. The coach horses of Western Australia were said to be the toughest in the world.

Lack of big depots for horses near docks and no big rail systems going in early, meant the India market could not grow. From a strong start for several decades, it faded after the 1880's as Queensland, Vic, NSW and SA put in superior infrastructure. The bazaars in WA however, flourished. There was an occasional order to India, in 1920 the Ozarda took a shipload over from Fremantle for example.

~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 


Best coaching and harness horses in the world... at a time a man was judged on his 'cattle' and driving skills coachmen were revered, and young bloods everywhere tried to emulate the 'four-in-hand club' exquisites of London, Walers were the best...

Painting: "Huon Road in summer" (Tasmania) 1886. source


VAN DIEMEN'S LAND.
COACHING IN AUSTRALIA.
- Railways having superseded the coaching system in England, and most of the" whips" having, per necessity, adopted other methods of keeping the "wolf from the door," the well-regulated stage coach with its blood team, bright harness, together with the spruce coachman, and active well-dressed guard have vanished from the road-yet, what would some of the "ould hands," the drivers of the Shrewsbury Wonder, the Exeter Mail, the far-famed Quicksilver, and the celebrated crack whip of the Brighton Criterion, Sir Vincent Cotton, say, if they knew the speed of the Van Diemen's Land coaching, Mrs Cox's day coach doing the distance of 120 miles be tween the extreme capitals, Hobart Town and Launceston, daily, in ten hours and a half, the coach leaving Hobart Town at fiveo'clock in the morning, and arriving at the latter place at half-past three o'clock in the afternoon. Compare this with 150 miles as done by the Shrewsbury Wonder in 15 hours, with every advantage, all the teams consisting of the primest cattle (over beautifully macadamized roads) being changed every six miles, only one minute allowed by the proprietors for that operation, the average speed, while the wheels were turning. being ten miles and a-half per hour. Contrast this with the Van Diemen's Land coach in question, the time occupied in changing, the execrable fourteen miles of bad road, over Salt Pan Plains (a disgrace to the authorities who have the power, but lack the will to improve, not only that portion, but the line of road generally) and the superiority in point of speed, will be decidedly in favor of the Australian coach-for against all, and every disadvantage, its average speed while running exceeds twelve miles per hour; this speaks for the stamina, strength, speed, and lasting powers of our horses, or, as Mr Charles Apperley emphatically terms them, the "Walers."

Geelong Advertiser, November 1849.



~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 


"Australian Horses. — We have learnt with considerable pleasure, that several of our crack horses exported hence to Calcutta, have found their way to Ceylon, where their fleetness and bottom on the race course have proved that the horse-flesh of this colony stands superior to the pure Arab. The poet and the musician have united their talents in by-gone days to commemorate the speed of 'My Arab Steed.' Now that we find Australian 'blood, bone, and beauty ' can, without whip or spur, put the Arab and his bold rider to the blush, the Australian poet should not slumber, nor the musician fail in his duty to his adopted country, to compose and to sing in strains of praise the fleetness of the 'Australian Steed.' His boldness, too, we have read of. An Australian horse purchased for 1000 rupees by one of the officers who was engaged in the battle of Ferozepore, is reported ere the first battle commenced to have 'bolted' with his gallant rider, and in his furious course made a breach in the advance line of the Seik forces ; and singular to relate, both horse and rider returned to their proper position in time to receive the evening's first salute from their great guns."

The Australian, 5th September 1846



~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 


"The Eagle Troop team consisted of three pairs of Australian horses of the light draught variety. There were three riders on the near (lefthand) side horses. If needful they were like the hammers of hell and a section of guns at full stretch was a magnificent sight. On one occasion the guns were coming into action at full gallop over an open piece of country. Suddenly a five foot ditch appeared in their path. They didn't pause. The lead drivers cracked their whips, and both teams surged towards the obstacle. There was no hesitation. Every pair of horses rose as one and sailed over the abyss, the guns and limbers bouncing high in the air as they hit the lip of the far bank. For co-ordination of man and beast, for sheer symmetry of motion, it is a memory to be treasured."

quote from Francis Ingall, in his book The Last of the Bengal Lancers. Royal Horse Artillery 'N' Battery are Eagle Troop.


~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 

Newpaper clippings....



Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser, 2nd February 1850

Sale of Horses in India.—We are informed by Mr. Haydon, of Bloomfield, Murrurundi, that he shipped two horses by the Walter Morrice to Calcutta, one of which brought 700 rupees, and the other 660, the two netting £61 4s. 8d. after paying all expenses.

~~~~~~~


South Australian Register, 15th October, 1869.

THE INDIAN HORSE TRADE AS IT IS AND AS IT MIGHT BE
A colonist who has, so to speak, been born and reared among stock, returned recently from a trip to Ceylon as supercargo of a consignment of horses. He was so much pleased with the opening he discovered there for a legitimate trade, that he means to follow it up on his own account as he has opportunity. The gentleman in question— Mr. Harriot, jun.— has seen both sides of this much-debated subject, and the conclusion he has arrived at is sufficiently indicated in the course he intends to pursue. The consignment with which he made his trial voyage was a characteristic specimen of what the trade is and has been for the past few years. 

It contained some superior horses, including four which His Excellency the Governor had selected for Sir Seymour Fitzgerald, of Bombay ; but the 'walers'were also strongly represented. Many had been picked up in and around Adelaide at the old colonist rate of valuation— a pound a leg. Not a few of them would have been rather short of legs had that rule been strictly applied to them. The very worst, had they been exhibited previously in the Corporation Yards, would have been consigned to the limbo of five and-twenty shilling scrubbers. It may be wondered that any sane man should have so little regard for his own reputation and the credit of the colony as to caricature its horseflesh by such a selection of nondescripts, but the folly is not a personal one. like all other very eggregious follies, it is the work of irresponsible corporations. 
The charterer, who is often unjustly visited with all the blame of this suicidal proceeding, is in many cases only an indirect party to it. He farms out the ship at advanced rates to the real exporters, who are generally small jobbers. He may agree to pay £18 per head for a certain number, say fifty or a hundred, and he will charge from £22 to £23 per head for all horses sent abroad. There is nothing to pay till the cargo reaches its destination, so that the sender has practically no outlay to make and no risk to incur beyond the original price of the horseflesh. Anything that can stand up and have itself called a horse is safe to fetch five-and-twenty pounds in Galle or in most of the Indian ports, about enough to defray its shipping expenses. Whether it sinks or swims the exporter has always reason to hope that he will escape easily, and to look beyond to the possibility of a credit balance. That such men should have foisted them selves into what might be made a great international trade is regretable. That they should have got such a trade almost entirely into their hands is disgraceful. In their own interests the respectable breeders of the colony ought to look to it. There is not the slightest excuse for their allowing so many middlemen to come between them and the thousands of good customers who are waiting for them all over India. The exporting of horses is as simple a commercial transaction as could be invented. From the hour of their birth till they can be landed in India, the horses require nothing which a breeder cannot do either by himself or by some direct agency. They don't require breaking, for colts are as saleable as horses if the sellers will only be honest enough to call them colts. For their own safety on board ship they ought to be tractable enough to allow themselves to be handled. By chartering direct several pounds per head may be saved on the freight, and an owner will be as easy to deal with as a charterer. The only practical difficulty would be to find a reliable supercargo or consignee, but the development of the trade would very soon produce plenty ef both. Assuming them to be obtainable, colts might then be drafted from a run, driven to Port Adelaide and shipped, and the shipper need not spend a penny upon them before he receives his account- sales from India. A consignment direct from the breeders, bearing uniform brands, would have a quasi-pedigree, and in India as elsewhere the smallest rag of apedigree is useful to a horse. Even at Colombo the trade has not been sogreatly abused as to destroy all faith in South Australian exporters. Such brands as Leake's and Stockdale's would still sell a decent-looking horse out of the scrubbiest cargo. The very slightest effort on our part would restore confidence in us. An honest man has only to make himself known in Ceylon, and to acquaint himself with the requirements of the islands, in order to ensure himself at all times of a profitable market. As a rule, it is showy horses the Indians want — superior hacks and carriage pairs. The Arabs which are brought down from the Persian Gulf are formidable competitors in everything but size. For plantation work and ordinary road duty nothing better could be desired, and so highly are the Arabs appreciated in their own line that fifty pounds and over is frequently paid for them. The Aus tralian horse when he lowers himself to the size of the Arab becomes altogether an inferior animal, and cannot stand against him anywhere. Neither can he be sold so cheap. In attempting to compete with such horses our exporters repeat the mistake of the squatters in sending home coarse wool which has to be ranked with South American grown at half the expense. They abjure the distinctive advantages which nature has con ferred upon them, but which they doggedly shut their eyes to. It is a special article India wants from us, and she offers a liberal price to whoever will deal fairly by her. She must have sound breeding, a little pedigree, and a great deal of appearance. A gentleman who went on from Bombay to Melbourne by last mail, furnished a good illustration of how the trade has hitherto been regarded at that port. He intended to select a pair of carriage horses in Victoria, the best he could procure, at about £150 for the pair, and to take them back with him. He had been looking out for a long time among the Australian arrivals at Bombay, but had never met with any thing to please him. When he discovers how these precious consignments were selected he will no longer wonder at his ill success. Other people, in a similar predica ment at Colombo, have commissioned Mr. Harriot to select horses for them here. Curious satire this on our business habits, that animals which are the next thing to unsaleable at home should have to be sought after by foreigners like black swans or dodos.

~~~~~~~



Australian Town and Country Journal. 27 th September 1884.
Kiss's Famous Horse Bazaar.
THE OLDEST-ESTABLISHED IN THE COLONIES
THERE is probably no better known centre of business in the city of Sydney than Kiss's famous horse and cattle bazaar. This widely-known auction centre has doubtless been the means of a greater amount of business being done than any other of a similar kind in the colonies. It is one  of the oldest established bazaars in Australia, dating back between 45 and 50 years, and, under the vigorous manage ment of the late Mr. George Kiss, reached a popularity and business connection second to none in the colonies. During the latter five years of Mr. Kiss's management his sons took an active part in the business, and finally, prior to their father's lamented death, they assumed entire control of the bazaar. Recognising the need for keeping abreast of the time, the Sons, Messrs. A. and G. Kiss, added to the facilities and accommodation of the place, and were able not only to retain to the full extent, the father's business, but in every way to meet the wants of the public in greatly increasing transactions. During the last two years daily sales have been held-continuing from 11 a.m. often till 3 p.m. without a break -and by thesemeans both vendors and buyers have been benefited. The sales being more extensive, the buying public have mus tered in large numbers, and the bazaar has become re cognised as really the centre of this branch of business in the metropolis of Sydney. The vendors of all classes of stock have reaped a big benefit by this centralisation of the buying public, and it is something nearer the mark to say, that a much larger sum than people may imagine changes hands from day to day by means of this famous medium of business. Quite recently the Castlereagh-street entrance of the lease of the bazaar having expired, the firm have  made a big extension at right angles from their Pitt-street entrance. The present premises (which are by no means to be compared to the dimensions to the whole place when entirely in readiness) will be connected with the new extensions by means of splendid arches which will open out into a large open area, round the sides of which will be  horse-boxes, fodder and harness stores, &c. The premises will then have a double entrance from Pitt-street, one as now, and another directly opposite Tattersall's. There has been no sparing of money in the new extension, the buildings being stoutly built, the entire length of brick, affording good additional livery and bait accommodation. The principal  improvement, however, is the facility it will offer for the parade of stock for sale, so that vendors may calculate on the best possible show for both cattle and horses. The firm, while thanking the public for a most liberal patronage for near upon 16 years, express the hope that they will have a continuance of this undoubted expression of public confidence.

~~~~~~~


The Age (Melbourne) 26th June, 1872.

THE AUSTRALIAN EXPORT HORSE COMPANY.
The adjourned meeting of the above company was held yesterday at Menzies' Hotel, at two o'clock. There was a considerable attendance,among whom we noticed Messrs. Henty, Baldock, Warren, Urquhart, Powell, Lord, Sloggatt, Armstrong, Munro, and others. Dr. Iflla took the chair. The meeting was opened by a short statement, being a repetition of its objects, and of the objections that were suggested at the former meetings. These were to take advantage of an offer from Sir Jalac Jung, the present ruling Nawab of Deccan, to form a stud farm on the Australian plan in his dominions. He proposes to pay the company a bonus of one thousand pounds on landing one hundred broodmares; to grant also nine thousand acres at a nominal rent for twenty years ; to pay a sum of one thousand pounds for fencing in the company's ground, and three hundred for the erection of superintendent's quarters ; to permit all the company's stores and necessaries to pass duty free ; and he has also granted a warrant or power which commands all his subjects to render every assistance in travelling to the company and its servants, and also to take all the produce of the imported mares in their third year at four hundred rupees. Mr. Warren suggested that the rupees were only worth a discount on the Government coin of twenty per cent., and that there was a difficulty in landing horses on the coast of the Nizam's territory. In reply, Mr. M'Comas produced a memorandum from the Oriental Bank, stating that thoeSicca rupee was value compared to the currency rupee as 116 to 100 ; and in reference to the landing of horses, that the opinion produced from Colonel Hope was that the port selected by the Nizam, and proposed to to used by the company, was that most suitable for landing horses ; and that the privileges of the company being considered, the expense of deportation would bo inconsiderable. After some conversation it was announced that tbe terms proposed by the Nizam were so favorable, and the prospects of a profitable trade in horses with India generally had been considered so promising, that a number of gentlemen had already consented to float the company, and that the full prospectus and other information as to the issue of shares would be laid before the public at the earliest possible date. A vote of thanks was passed to Dr. Iflla, and the meeting closed.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


Northern Star (NSW), 29th March 1902.
Australian Horses in Germany
A BERLIN paper has the following paragraph from a correspondent at Bremer-haven : " The 400 horses which arrived here by the steamer Alysia have stood the long sea trip from China very well; not a single one has been lost. This good result has been brought about chiefly by the fact that during calm weather the horses were subject to plenty of walking exercise on the main deck. These horses were purchased in Australia, and have proved to be of much better service than those that were purchased in the United States, and which were mostly unfit for military purposes; they were then mostly sold to Japan. The cost of transport from China to here was very high, viz, £35 each, at which price equally good horses could have been procured here. The under taking, however, is looked upon as a very successful military experiment."  
The horses referred to were purchased in Australia for service in China, and reports had already been received that they had given every satisfaction. 

~~~~~~~

Albury Banner and Wodonga Express. 7th Oct 1898.
Australian horses have long been a regular marketable expert to India, and Messrs. Moxham Bros., of Paramatta, are just now shipping a hundred greys and piebalds they have selected to figure as ''Walers ' in the Calcutta market. 

~~~~~~~


The Sydney Mail and NSW Advertiser, 22nd Feruary 1896. 
For all military purposes, the real monarch of the situation is now the Australian or Waler. All European cavalry in India are now mounted onWaters, and a large and constantly increasing number of them is to be found in the ranks of the native regiments. The systematic importation of horses from Australia to India only dates back about 30 or 35 years, and the present excellence of the shiploads annually disembarked is a matter of very recent memory.

~~~~~~~~


The North Western Advocate and the Emu Bay Times

 Friday 10th August 1900.


Australian Horses For Germany.
CONSIGNMENTS FROM MELBOURNE AND SYDNEY.



The first consignment of Australian horses for the use of the German army in China left on Monday last by the steamer Kirklee, bound for Wei-Hai-Wei. A few weeks ago the German Government notified its desire to purchase 4,000 horses in Australia for use in the Chinese campaign.



Permission was granted by the Imperial authorities, and the German consulate in Sydney was appointed the centre of operations. As it was impossible that all these animals could be obtained in New South Wales, Mr John Cooke, the well-known exporter, was chosen to act for the German empire in Melbourne.

That gentleman accordingly made arrangements, and on Thursday, 2nd inst., a commission appointed by the German consul in Sydney arrived in Melbourne for the purpose of passing the horses. This commission, which consisted of the vice-consul and four prominent German residents of Syd-ney, were assisted by Mr. Kendall, the well known veterinary surgeon, and
Thursday and Friday afternoons were spent in making a thorough examination of the animals which had been collected for tbem. The horses were required for the artillery, transport, cavalry and mounted infantry branches of the service, and each animal submitted was subjected to a very severe test. Many of the horses were light draughts, capable of performing well in more than one of the required branchei of the service, and no attempt was therefore made to classify the animals. Very few of the horses were considered unsuitable, and on Friday evening the work of inspection was completed, and 210 horses had been accepted. Mr Cooke had arranged for the fitting up of stalls on the steamer Kirklee, and, these having been passed as satisfactory by the German come mission, the horses were entrained to Williamstown on Friday evening. Some delay was suffered on the railways, and the experience of the visiting Germans both here and in their trip from Sydney caused them to make some uncompli-mentary comments on railway manage- ment in Australia, but eventually all the horses reached Williamstown safely, and were shipped aboard the Kirklee. Sydney, Tuesday.  About 300 horses purchased in this colony for the German Government for service in China, have been subjected to veterinary examination, and will be shipped tomorrow on the steamer Claverton.

~~~~~~~


The Register, 29th September, 1908.
KAPUNDA HORSE SALE.
A CAPITAL START. INDIAN BUYERS BUSY.
[By our Special Reporter.]
Business— spelt with a big black capital B— permeated Mr. Sidney Kidman's annual horse sale, which was begun at Kapunda on Monday morning. There was scarcely a shadow of the fun and frolic which had characterized its predecessors, but nobody was the loser for that, although a little merriment would naturally have lightened the proceedings. A Kapunda horse sale without the 'cattle king' in the ring is like a circus without Dummy. Not that Mr. Kidman may be likened to the gentleman who meekly takes the cuffs and abuse of the clown and turns double somersaults to show his appreciation of his treatment. Far from it. But the multi-station owner is just as much an institution at the annual sales as Dummy is under the canvas, and in his absence there seemed to be something radically wrong. There was not a man among the crowd who watched Mr. C. J. Coles wielding the cane on Monday who would not gladly have welcomed Mr. Kidman back to his accustomed place, and smiled at his quaint remarks as he 'shooed' the horses around the ring. — Accepting the Inevitable. — But the inevitable had to be accepted, and from a business point of view the sale rattled along right merrily. It was 11 o'clock before the first animal was sent tearing down the race; yet before the hand on the clock pointed far past 3 Mr. Coles had submitted about 200 horses and secured an average of close upon £20.

T

his lot represented the first instalment of 1,100 heavy and medium draughts, gunners, remounts, hacks, harness horses, and ponies, 600 of which come from Mr. Kidman's own properties, nearly 130 from Messrs. Lindsay & Howe, of Arrabury Station, on the Queensland border, and the best part of 100 on account of Mr. John Hayes, of Undoolya, Central Australia. Among the stations, represented by consignments of varying dimensions and quality, are Coongy (on the Cooper),' Innamincka, Eringa, and Macumba (Central Australia), Mundowdna, the Peake, Annandale (near Birds ville). Carrandotta, and Thargomindah (Queensland), and Mount Poole (New South Wales). The auctioneer before starting his long task mentioned that Mr. Kidman's last injunction prior to his departure for the old country was to 'treat the buyers well,' for he intended to yard about 2,000 horses next year, and wanted to keep the patronage of those who had looked to his sales in the past. This was quite characteristic of the man who breeds our meat; he always promises something special for next year. —A Word About Central Australia.— The lot submitted on Monday all hailed from Eringa and Macumba, beyond the terminal point of the Great Northern Rail way, and appropriately enough one of the first men I ran across was Mr. G. C. Foulis, the manager of the latter station. His services were invaluable, for he knew the age, history, and points of every horse that came from his run— and a good many more besides. Macumba comprises nearly 2,000 square miles of country, and, according to Mr. Foulis, almost every inch, of it is in great heart. 'We have had about 7 in. of rain this year,' he remarked, 'and are set up for two years. Everything up there is rolling fat. Most of the stock consists of cattle and horses but we are trying a few sheep as an experiment, and they are doing remarkably well.' Mr. A. McLeod (manager of Eringa) and Mr. A. McLean (manager of the Peake) gave a similarly glowing account of the country from which they had come. —The Trials of a Drover.— Another man whose offices were almost as indispensable as those of the auctioneer himself was Mr. Frank Phillips, one of the 'cattle king's' most trusted drovers. As a matter of fact, he took the place of Mr. Kidman himself by acting as ringmaster. Since his last appearance at Kapunda Mr. Phillips has traversed close upon 3,000 miles of bush, and experienced hardships and dangers enough to satisfy an ordinary- individual for a lifetime. In November lie lett for Victoria Downs with a mob of horses and mules, and sabsequently returned to Eringa and Macumba with 800 head of cattle. On the return journey a white man under his command and a black boy died from the effects of the dreaded malaria, while another white became so ill that he had to be left behind. Fortunately he has since recovered. But for invoking the aid of Warrigal Wacks, it is doubtful whether the intrepid drover would have got through with his precious cattle. After a week or two of city life, Mr. Phillips is longing to get back to the open, and he expects soon to start for Victoria Downs again.

Familiar Faces.—
A glance around the ring soon convinced the onlooker that the novelty of these annual engagements had been rubbed of. The scores of curious sightseers who patronised the first two or three sales preierret on this occasion to remain at home, and nearly everybody who sat within range of the auctirneer's voice was there to do business. Among the buyers I recognised many familiar faces. Mr. Harry Gidney, who had the distinction— if such it may be termed— to buy the first horse yarded, was over from Benalla with a big commission from India, while others busy purchasing gunners and remounts for the Land of the Rajahs were Messrs. Julius Gove, Steve Margretts (familiarly known as 'The Colonel'), R. McKenna, Stan Herbert, and James Rogers. Messrs. Poulton and Sons bought freely for the Wimmera district of Victoria, and a good batch was knocked down to Messrs. Rasheed Brothers, of Jamestown. Mr. A. Badman and Mr. J. Burgess were standing by with the object of getting good farm horses for Western Australia, and Mr. A. Ferguson was present on behalf of the Metropolitan Tramways Trust. There were several buyers from Loxton and Pinnaro— a testimony to the progress being made in those districts— while Mr. Julius Gronike procured some useful animals for Melrose. — 'Peculiar' — a Thoroughbred. — Gunners and remounts found a ready sale, and four solid, clean-limbed horses of the 'Indian type' reached £37 10/ each. 

In marked contrast to this substantial figure was the £5 10/ paid for Peculiar, a real study in black and white, but a thoroughbred all the same. Peculiar got his name from hfe remarkable colour. Nature intended him to be a bay, but misfortune put great ugly patches of white all over him, and no one but a hero would dare ride him along King William street in daylight. This little curio is by Kingsborough (by Goldsborough) from Forest Queen, and they say he can fly for two or three furlongs. At any rate, he could not have been too slow as a baby. He was such a freak colour that soon after his birth a station hand chased him with a waddy with the obiect of ending his career; but Peculiar lived to be sold for £5 10/. 



~~~~~~~

The Advertiser, 20th October, 1909.

The big Kapunda horse sale is now a thing of the past. Nearly 2,400 were sold, and of this number Mr. Sidney Kidman yarded about 2,100. This constitutes a record for the Commonwealth, and probably the, world. The sales, which were started in 1905 with 1,000 head, averaging £12, have now reached the high-water mark both in numbers and prices. The animals have been gathered from Mr. Kidman's stations in South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland, and the Northern Territory. Many of them travelled 1,000 miles to the railway, to be trucked from Farina, whilst others came by way of the north-eastern tracks, nearly 2,000 miles, to the yards at Kapunda. The animals comprised draughts, medium draughts. gunners, remounts, lighter sorts, and ponies from the following stations:-Annandale, Eringa, Diamantina Downs, Bullo Downs, Coongy, Koorabulka, The Peake, Mundowdna (some of the finest draughts ever gathered together), Dubbo Downs, Mirra Mitta, Mount Poole, and Norley (some ponies from here and Tickalara). Thargomindah. Durham Downs, Macumba, Monkira, and Spring Vale. Those who were responsible for the droving did some first-class work, and the local men also in drafting and delivering have little to learn. Messrs. M. Cabalan, Percy James, and others doing good work. Amongst the drovers, Messrs. McLeod, Beazley, and Phillips greatly assisted in their knowledge of the various drafts. One of the oldest droving hands in the State came in with the last lot of horses, Mr. W. Canny, known throughout the States more familiarly as "Thackaringa Billy." He is a typical bushman who has a great affection for his dogs. He owned a cattle dog that was a great favorite years ago. The owner would tell "Needle" to fetch his horse. She would go out to the stable, mount the horse, and take che reins in her teeth, and bring him round to the door. Many tricks could she do, such as taking a copper into the bar for a biscuit, or to the stationers for a copy of "The Advertiser." If Mr. Canny wished to speak to anyone, all he had to do was point him out and say,"Fetch him. Needle," she would at once tug him back by the trousers. Mr Canny has a little place of his own in the interior now, and breeds a few horses and cattle.

The buyers were in great heart, and although some folks were beginning to tire, thev kept on bidding brisklv to the last. Messrs. Rasheed Bros, (perhaps the largest buyers). W. A. Steinwedel, J. Grunicke, H. 6. Kellv, Bureess (2), and Tremellen secured some useful horses for this State, as also did Messrs. Taylor, Henschke, and Plush (of the river, and Bhagat Singh, Iewan Singh, and Sirdan Singh. A number of the best draughts will, go to the new, agricultural country, such as Loxton, ' Lameroo, Pinnaroo, and the West Coast. A good shipment will go westwards, and the Indian and Victorian buyers secured a Jarge number which were , distributed, amongst such well-known buvers as Messrs. J. Gove, S. Margretts, H. J. Gidney, R. McKenna, and F. Derham.

The last named, by the way, as a lad used to bring the drafts of Tasmanians over that Sir Jenkin Coles sold in the old Palmerton yards, when the northern areas were first opened up. Messrs. Poulton & Sons secured some for the western districts ofVictoria. Mr. V. Gregg, of Ballarat, as usual, got some nice brewery and van horses. Messrs. Manisty Bros., and Martin, take a batch to Normanville, and Mr. J. Robb was also a good buyer.

Amongst the lady buyers, the palm rests with Mrs. Henschke. She is one of the best judges of a horse in the ring, and not only so, will in the early morning saddle up an unknown horse and ride him out before breakfast, to the admiration of those who know a good horsewoman when they see one. Mrs. Henschke and her husband and friends took a fine lot back with them to the river.

Mr. Charles Coles must have had a hard fortnight, as he wielded the hammer right through, with occasional help from Mr. Arthur Coles. Mr. W. G. Thomas (his partner) was responsible for the clerical part of the work, and he is recognised as one of the smartest men in 1 the State at giving the description of a beast. He, with his colleagues, Messrs. W. D. Henderson. Harold, Norman, and Ross Colea, and P. Bryant, were kept busy, and no hitch or accident of any serious nature occurred. Messrs. W. and A. Beviss also greatly assisted.

Some of the Indian buyers expressed their disapproval of the new regulations relating to the reimportation of horses from India, arguing with some show of reason that a trade that totals about 7,000 horses from Australia to India yearly should be fostered, and that the authorities shouldnot risk losing this trade by prohibiting the return of thoroughbred stallions after their racing career in India is finished. They point out that these animals could be examined and quarantined, and then would be useful at the stud. The Commonwealth veterinary surgeon (Mr. Mandalay) takes another view, and savs it is of vital importance to keep the States free from the equine diseases, such as surra, glanders, &c.

Some of the daily averages were very high, eight of them being over the £20 mark, and one day's average was £30 1/6. for 180 draughts from Cooney, Mirra-mitta, and Durham Downs. The highest price realised was £49 10/, for a three year-old brown draught mare.

~~~~~~~

The Courier (Hobart) 4th May 1850.


HORSES IN INDIA.-At the sale of stud-bred fillies and Walers at Cook and Co 's, the average of the sale was for the former 280r..each, and the latter (per Sea Nymph) 271r. The Hurkuru informs us that the second portion of New South Wales horses. ex John Bright, averaged 425 rupees, at Messrs. Tulloch, Adam & Co 's sale. Fifteen of the same batch were taken without rejection by the Government for the Horse Artillery at 380 r. each.


~~~~~~~


The Daily News (Perth) 7th December, 1912.
IN THE TROPICS
AUSTRALIAN HORSES IN MALAYA
... and practically every bit of racing stock in the Malay Peninsula is supplied by Australia. Annually about 120 ponies— valued at anything up to £3,500— leave Sydney or Melbourne for Malaya, to be trained into racing stock. The ponies are in size between 14 and 14.2 hands, and they vary in age from four to six years. The clubs in Malaya that import these ponies from Australia are the Singapore Sporting Club, Penang Turf Club, Ipoh Gymkhana Club, Soremban Gymkhana Club, Klang Turf Club, and the Selangor Turf Club. The manner in which the clubs import is, roughly, as follows:— Members of the above clubs who are desirous of becoming owners notify the secretary of the turf section to that effect, and the Secretary at once writes to either Sydney or Melbourne, ordering a batch of ponies, for which his club is prepared to pay between £30 and £40 a head, c.i.f,, at the port nearest to the club. When the ponies arrive the members wanting them ballot for them. The ponies are put into training as soon as they have had an opportunity to acclimatise, and they invariably fall into the hands of an Australian trainer, who, understanding their possibilities, works hard and conscientiously to wards putting some manners into them. One of the most successful trainers in Malaya is George Redfearn, a son of Redfearn of Caulfield, and who at one time was a popular jockey on Sydney and Melbourne courses. He is doing well in the Middle East, and looks better than he ever did in Australia, where, of course, he 'had' to train to ride. 
The 'Griffin,' 
Returning to the ponies, it is necessary to add that the new arrivals compete in races for novices— a new arrival is designated a 'griffin' until it wins a race— and a man who is not in the know takes his life into his own hands when he backs a 'griffin,' with whose powers he is unacquainted. At a June meeting a 'griffin' left the field gaping in the first race of the day, and beat the best time for the course. The following day the bookmakers were very tight regarding him. The starting gate went up, and, to the amazement and dismay of many, he declined to run more than 100 yards. Such is fate with a 'griffin.' (extract from a long article)

~~~~~~~


The Advertiser, 29th May, 1914.

LAND AND HORSES IN THE WEST.

MR. M. RASHEED RETURNS TO

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.

A lengthy absence from a State brings a flood of new impressions to the mind of the returning visitor. Mr. M. Rasheed, of Gum Park estate, Redbill, the well-known horse dealer and grazier, realised this fact during his recent visit to Western Australia. Fifteen years had elapsed since his last trip across the bight, and he has brought back with him many stories of sturdy settlers "'making good'' over there. He was particularly impressed in this direction. "There is nothing crude or un-scientific about the majority of the farmers I met this trip," remarked Mr. Rasheed, in conversation with a reporter on Thursday. "They combine skilful methods with physical greatness, and a marked determination to succeed. And they are succeeding."



Mr. Rasheed is probably as well acquainted with the whole of Australia as any man whose business takes him into the country districts of the various States. He describes the countrybetween Albany and Wagin as patchy, and in many parts greitly resembling the Pinnaroo land. His most favorable impress sions were gathered between Perth and Geraldton, the soil of which he consideredalmost as good as that round about Jamestown. He holds out a glorious wheat producing future for Western Australia. 



Horses are, however, the main consideration of Mr. Rasheed, and his brother, who carry on their huge business under the name of "Rasheed Bros.' They have established a record for Western Australia, so far as the number of horses disposed of is concerned. During the last few months they have sold, through Dalgety & Co., no less than £34,000 worth. Altogether, ,.248 horses found buyers, and all were sold without reserve. So successful had been their sales that in connection with the last shipment, Rasheed Bros. undertook to pay the railage of the horses to any part of the State. The significant feature of these sales is one that will appeal immediately to those concerned in this State. Through Western Australia being able to take so many horses the'South Australian market, which was in a particularly bad state, has derived most beneficial effects. Mr. Rasheed "scooped the pool," so far as the West is concerned, an indica- tion of which was noticeable in the decreasing demand towards the end of-the sales. The State is now undoubtedly well supplied with horseflesh for some time to come, and both Rasheed Bros, and Dalgety and Co. have reason to be proud of their recent achievements over there.



~~~~~~~


Townsville Daily Bulletin, 27th October, 1933.

KIDMAN'S ANNUAL HORSE SALE.

Averaging £10 16s a head, 237 horses from Central Australians stations realised £2,258 at Sir Sidney Kidman's annual sale at Cole's Bazaar, Kapunda. Heavy types especially sold well, and brought up to £81. This year's annual draft of 500 was drawn from Huckatta, Stirling, Ma- cumba, and Bond Springs, and comprised ordinary farm sorts, good light horses, and a sprinkling of heavy draughts. Many of the animals came a distance of 1,200 miles, having walked 200 to Alice Springs, and travelled 1,000 miles by train. Considering their long journey, they arrived in good order. Before the sale started Mr. Walter Kidman stated many more horses would have been offered, but a lot of colts out of condition remained on the stations. Included among the yarding were horses held at Forder'sselection, at Cockburn after the last sale, in the hope that they wouldImprove, but these were out of condi tion. Mr. Sidney Reid said that theyhad been through a very dry time up there. When the auctioneer (Mr. Ross Coles) mounted the rostrum, says the special correspondent of the 'Adelaide Chronicle,' the ringside and top rails of the races and yards were crowded with buyers, and farmers from every part of the State and across the bor der. Everybody missed the genial presence of Sir Sidney Kidman, who still in England, and is, as Mr. Coles announced amid applause, in better health than he has enjoyed for years. 
Moving about freely were two veterans of the Indian horse trade. Colonel Steve Margrett, with his ubiquitous crackers and bombs, sounding above the stentorian notes of the auctioneer's voice, and Mr. Richard McKenna, who has been taking horses to India longer than anybody else in Australia. He has eaten 48 Christmas dinners there. Mr. Alf Raw, representing a buyer for India also, came over from Melbourne, and was an active bidder. In fact, this trio took about 40 head to be sent overseas. I also saw Mr. Fred Plush, of Renmark, a well-known River Murray Identity. He has spent a lifetime among- horses and never misses a sale. Mr. Sam Rasheed came down from Minburrabecause of his never fading keenness to attend a sale. Mr. R. Smales, ofMildura made his presence felt by taking a dozen of the best horses offered. Sale Goes With Great Swing. From the time the first horse entered the ring a strong demand soon became apparent, and in 110 minutesthis morning until lunch time, Mr Coles had disposed of 136 head. Dur ing the afternoon he knocked down 101 in an hour and a half . Buying was widely distributed, and within a week scores ot animals will find new quarters on farms on the upper and lower Yorke Peninsula, the West Coast, Victorian, and Murray mallee flats, and mid and lower northern.Another batch ot 287 horses offered at the big annual aale here to-dayaveraged £9 8s 6d a head, and realised £2,234. Heavy draughts sold up to £35, useful firm and medium types pre dominate and it was not surprising tn see two mobs from Queensland arrive out of condition after a gruelling trip across drought-stricken country to Marree. Mr, Ross Coles resumed sellng the remander of Sir Sidney Kidman's quota, and bidding for these was so spirited at the opening, that 60 head were knocked down to eager buyers In 80 minutes at prices ranging from £11 to £20. Mr. R. Smales, of Mildura, who operated freely on the best heavy sorts also bought a quartet of beautiful hardy mules, carrying plenty of height, and which had been worked in a team together.

Mr. Alf Raw was the main buyer for the Indian trade, and took 20 head. Mr. Hughie Johnston, of Alice Springs, yarded 58 heavy and light sorts out of condition, which brought up to £20. These were portion ot a draft of 90 head from the Cloncurry and gulf districts in Queensland. They were walked 850 miles to Marree and trucked on the train to Farrell's Flat. 

Mr. Johnston told me that they had had a very rough trip down. They travelled 120 miles without a feed. 'The Diamantina River was up,' he said. 'We swam the mob across and then had to go outside the flood waters. They went for four days without putting their heads to the ground.' Mr. J. Freckleton, of Camooweal, had a worse experience than Mr. Johnston, because be walked a mob of 880 to Marree from the Camooweal district, and gulf country before rain fell. These animals were trucked to Quorn, and 200 were sold at Gladstone last week. The remaining 110 were offered by Mr. Robs Coles here to-day and were disposed of at current values. 


~~~~~~~



above from  the Chronicle (S.A.) 7th November, 1935. 
250 horses on the Nirvana for India.

~~~~~~~

above photo in the "News" an Adelaide paper, 20th November 1933.
~~~~~~~


The Advertiser, 30th August 1932.

KAPUNDA HORSE SALES START TODAY
Indian Buyers Recall Old Ring Identities FINE STOCK OFFERING By YATTALUNGA. KAPUNDA, August 29.

The advent of the motor car has to a great extent broken the traditions of the Kapunda horse sales of the early days, which lasted over a week and necessitated buyers mak ing: this country town their homeduring that, period. It is 36 years ago that Sir Sidney Kidman first encrusted the firm of Coles & Thomas with the selling of his annual draft of horses, drawn from at least three States.

Tonight, at Kapunda. there are two Indian horse buyers awaiting tomorrow's auctions, Mr. Steve Margrett and Mr. R. McKenna. who were present on that occasion. The names of Julius Gove, George Kiss, Tom Derham. H. Hurley, Mick Howard, and Jack and Bill Bur gess, all of whom were, in their life time, among the best judges of horse flesh in the land, are recalled. Among the living one hears mentioned the names of R. Gilder, T. Reynolds, J. Robb, H. J. Gidney. H. Davis. Gascard Bros, I. Little, Phil Lock. E. Crews, and W. Moran. "We must not forget," said Harold Coles, "those magnates among old buyers for the local market, whose pur chases often totalled over 100 horses at every sale, that great judge and courageous bidder, Mick Rasheed. W. H. Steinwedel, of Balaklava. Julius Grunike, C. G. McMahon, whose services were sought after at every show of importance in the Commonwealth,Archie Badman, C. B. Ives, of Oakden Hills. Tom Tail. H. Mentha, M.Habib, and Sam Rasheed.
Attended Every Sale
Steve Margrett, known to his friends as "The Colonel," is proud of the fact that he has never missed a Kapunda horse sale in the 36 years. He is the oldest Indian buyer in Australia, and although past the allotted span he is looking forward to his visit to India this year, which will be the forty sixth he has undertaken. Every old identity in Kapunda knows him, and he is the life of the town during the sales. When he arrived today he said to Ross Coles—"l must go and give Bill Thomas (the local hairdresser and tobacconist) the signal that I have arrived. Walking down the street he drew a large cracker from his pocket, lit the fuse, and, placing it on the doorstep of the shop, proceeded calmly on his way. There was a terrific explosion, and it was immediately recognised that Steve Margrett had reached Kapunda again. 
Dick McKenna is older by a few years than his friend and fellow buyer, and with undisguised regret he recalls the fact that he has missed three sales in the 36 years. The photo of some of the old buyers, with Sir Sidney Kidman at the record sale of 2,300 horses, which appeared in "The Advertiser" last Friday, brought back many pleasant memories to Mr. McKenna. "They were wonderful days," he said, "and what a wonderful man Sir Sidney then was. He was a fine judge, and to see and hear him in the rostrum with Charlie Coles during the sale was a revelation and an education."
Indian Requirements. The buyers for India said tonight that on the score of economy then orders for horses had been cut down by about 30 per cent, this year. This action was due not to any reduction in the army or police, but because ol the decision to make the horses they now had do for another year. The average annual requirements for all purposes were, they said, between four and five thousand, all of which are drawn from Australia. A few years ago a lot of horses were secured from America, but these were evidently not suitable, because no more were obtained from that source. The horses to be offered tomorrow are a fine lot, in splendid condition, and include types suitable for all buyers. There are gunners, bounders, and cavalry horses for the Indian buyers, medium draughts for the farmers, and cart horses and hacks. Every thing points to a strong demand and a record attendance of buyers from all parts of the State is expected. The Governor (Sir Alexander Hore-Ruthven) and Lady Hore-Ruthven will arrive here at midday to attend the sales, and Sir Sidney and Lady Kidman will motor from Adelaide early in the morning.


~~~<:::~<:::~<:::~<:::~<::: 


Resources...


Modern Pig Sticking. (book) by Major Wardrop, pub. 1914.

The Last of the Bengal Lancers, by Francis Ingall. Published 1988 by Leo Cooper Ltd. Top read.

The Life of Sir Halliday Macartney, by Demetrius Charles Boulger. First pub 1908, reprinted by  Cambridge Uni Press. Fabulous read about the Boxer Rebellion. Macartney commanded Li Hung Chang's forces.


The Battlers of Butcher's Hill. Lennie Wallace, published 2012 by Central Queensland University Press - highly recommended, especially for those interested in the Qld trade.